Walls – Time Line(1) Part Two

Wall Street
See - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wall_Street

Wall Street in New York City is only 0.7 mile long but is the financial center of t he United States and perhaps the world. One theory of the Dutch-named "de Waal Straat" is that a wall was constructed to protect the Dutch colony from the British or Native American tribes. One theory has it that in the 1640's both African slaves[14] and white colonists, collaborated with the city government in the construction of a more substantial fortification, a strengthened 12-foot (4 m) wall. In some sense the United States started with a Wall and in some ways average people are still walled off from Wall Street.

Graffiti – Walls with messages
See - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graffiti
Indian rock drawings - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroglyph
Writings on the walls in Gaza - https://electronicintifada.net/content/writings-walls-gaza/9404
Art Crimes - The Writing on the Wall - http://www.graffiti.org
Free Speech Wall (CWU)

Where there is a wall there likely a message or graffiti. The more modern definition of graffiti is "writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface in a public place" but by this definition it should be noted that "one persons graffiti is another persons message". Graffiti is a global phenomena and distributes messages everywhere. Graffiti can be simple written words, scribes, advertisement, political messages, or elaborate wall paintings. It has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire. Graffiti general denotes undesirable or illegal writing in walls but the are many walls that artists and others pain as decorations. Walls are often used to protest the conditions that lead to the creation of the walls. This is evident in recent politically motivated walls such as the Berlin Wall, the wall along the US Mexico boarder and the walls surrounding Gaza and the West Bank. It is important for everyone to looks closely for the messages on the wall.

Australia - rabbit-proof fence
!worddavfbdac9a1190d1b508806ea1138191c91.png|height=117,width=220!Rabbits in Australia were a very costly invasive species. From 1901 until 1907 the rabbit-proof fence or a pest-exclusion fence was built across Western Australia to control the spread of the rabbit population from the east into Western Australia. There were ultimately 3 fences totaling approximately 2,000 miles and cost almost $1 million dollars at that time. Upon its completion in 1907 the number 1 fence of about 1,100 miles was the longest unbroken fence in the world. It naturally did not work as the European rabbit both jump very high as well as burrow underground. Typical solution to fences either go over or under.
In 1950 the myxoma virus was deliberately released into the estimated 600 million rabbit population. Initially the virus was very successful and dropped the rabbit population to about 100 million. The rabbits developed immunity to the virus and by the 1990s the rabbit population had returned to about 300 million. Viruses are not good walls either as mother nature mutates to adjust to the challenge.
Rabbit-Proof Fence is a 2002 Australian drama film directed by Phillip Noyce based on the book Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence by Doris Pilkington Garimara.
Rabbit-proof fences – Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabbit-proof_fence

Hedges as Walls
The need to define ownership was an important driver for the development of walls. Hedges, a wall of closely spaced shrubs or trees, both define a space as well as provide a barrier. The first hedges date back to the Neolithic Age (4000-6000 years ago) when farmers began to enclose land for cereal crops. Hedges were typically used to designate property bounders but were also used to contain cattle and as protection from the wind. Some hedges date from the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, which lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. As hedges from wider they developed there own ecology as wildlife settled in. In modern time hedges are used at a form of screening and to establish a form of privacy.
I understand that the yew hedge is penetrated at one point by a gate?
The Hound of the Baskervilles by Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan
Hedge – Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedge

The devils rope – Barbed wire
Barbed wire changed everything: it made the control of space, the impoundment of people and animals simple and cheap. Prior to the 1860's the walls, which defined property, were often hedges or stone. Walls made of hedges and stone took considerable time and effort to grow or build, unlike barbed wire barriers. The stonewalls that defined boundaries are easily visible throughout rural northeastern US and parts of England. The first patent for barbed wire was issued in 1867 to Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio. One of the many powers of barbed wire is that it was the first easy way to control cattle thus the fencing of the west. It was and is easy and cheap to put up and highly effective in a variety of situations. Some argue that the US Old West ended in the 1870's with the proliferation of barbed wire that created barriers defining space and marking off boundaries. Barbed wire allowed landowners to define space and how or what could enter or leave that space. This changed the notion of free-range cattle and sparked wars involving cutting the wire that blocked the movement of cattle. Laws were naturally passed make the tampering with the walls of barbed wire illegal. The military quickly recognized the utility of barbed wire in wars and was firsts used in the Spanish–American War in 1898 conflict between Spain and the United States. It was also used extensively during WWI in the prolific and deadly trench warfare. In 1899 it was used to control people and spaces during the Boer War. It was also used by the Nazi's to structure concentration camps and to literally herd and corral people. One needs only to looks at common and current picture to see the many uses of this cheap and highly effective material that is used to limit or constrain the movement of others. It is commonly used on top of barriers or fences to stop people form climbing over.
An excellent book on barbed wire that explores the many uses and implications of barbed wire is "The Devil's Rope: A Culture History of Barbed Wire" by Alan Krell, 2002.

  • The Devil's Rope: A Cultural History of Barbed Wire – February 3, 2002

by Alan Krell (Author)

Ecological impact of walls
Retaining walls, large and small, are common in home yards, beaches and almost anywhere. The basements of our homes are a form of a retaining walls used to control the soil surrounding the below ground basement. On a recent vacation to a near by island the effect of the retaining walls or seawalls was easy to see when compared to a near by area without these concrete and stone walls. The beach area with the walls was rocky and uninviting. Even worse it was more than down to the beach over stone boulders creating a significant and uninviting entry to the beach. The beach with out the retaining walls sandy and inviting with birds and other wildlife darting in and out of uprooted tree that were either carried there by the tide of from the bank. Seawalls are designed to protect the human inhabitants from the energy of the sea. They impede the natural flow on sand, soil and wildlife from the area restricted by the wall.
Road / dams as walls – salmon, people displaced

Dams – Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dam
Seawall – Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seawall
Retaining Walls – Wikipedia -

Virtual walls
A ranking of the world's 'most powerful' passports
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2015/04/15/a-ranking-of-the-worlds-most-powerful-passports/?tid=sm_Fb http://www.passportindex.org
The modern age present the use of different types of walls to control peoples movement and access. Passports are but one of these.
The ranking puts the U.S. and U.K. passports first, giving access to 147 countries without an advanced visa. France, South Korea and Germany are second, with access to 145 countries, followed by Italy and Sweden in third; Denmark, Singapore, Finland, Japan, Luxembourg and the Netherlands in fourth; and Switzerland in fifth.
Advanced economies dominate the top of the list. Hong Kong comes in at 11, while Argentina and Israel are ranked 16th. Brazil ranks 17th, Mexico 22nd, the Russian Federation 35th, and China 45th.
The least desirable passports according to this ranking are from the Solomon Islands, Myanmar, South Sudan, Sao Tome and Principe and the Palestinian Territories. They rank in 80th place, giving access to just 20 countries each without an advance visa.

Humor and Walls

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