Toxicology in Sweden
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Historical notes in Swedish toxicology (1)
1663:The earliest regulations regarding the handling of poisons were announced via the medical legislation. In 1663 the "Kungl. Maj:t" (Swedish Government) issued a charter for Collegium forCollegium mediocorum, resulting in the public recognition of certain physicians in Stockholm.
1707:Johan Linder, MD (1678-1724), later raised to the nobility Lindestolpe, published the first Swedish monograph in toxicology:De Venesis("About poisons").
Carl Wilhelm Scheele(1742-1786), a chemist and a pharmacist was the discoverer of many chemical substances, most notably said to discovering oxygen and chlorine. Like many other chemists of his time, Scheele often worked under difficult and even dangerous conditions. Also, he had a habit of tasting chemicals that he found. It appears that this, together with frequent exposure to poisonous chemicals, was the cause of his premature death at the age of 43. At the end of his life he showed symptoms resemble mercury poisoning.
1773:Carl Peter Thunberg, a student and successor of Carl von Linné (1707 - 1778), sends a letter from his journey to Japan to the Swedish academy of sciences, describing poisoning with white lead, accidentally contaminating food.
1810:Karolinska Institutet (KI) was founded. A letter from King Karl XIII to theCollegium Medicumauthorized the Collegium Medicum authorized the immediate establishment of a "college for the corps of field surgeons". The name Medico nameMedico Chirurgiska Institutet was Institutetwas established in 1811 and Carolinska was andCarolinskawas added in 1822. In 1811 Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779-1848) became one of KI's first professors and laid the foundation for the Institute's natural-scientific orientation. In 1895, Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) appointed Karolinska Institutet to award the annual Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
1845:NJ Berlin (1812-1891), the last student of Jöns Jacob Berzelius, published a book with the title: "Anvisning till de allmännaste gifters upptäckande på kemisk väg - För Läkare och Apotekare" (Instructions for the chemical detection of the most general poisons - For physicians and pharmacists).
1850:On behalf of "Kungl. Maj:t" (Swedish Government), the "Sundhetskollegium" (something like: "the Health teaching-staff") give a proposal for a poison regulation ("giftlagstiftning").
1872: "Kungl. Maj:t" (Swedish Government) decides that a position for forensic chemistry should be established, followed by changes in regulations for investigations of poisons at post-mortem examination of corpse. The first holder of this position was Nils Peter Hamberg (1815-1902). The position was later gradually developed to "Statens rättskemiska laboratorium"
(Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Chemistry).
1876:Ordinance regarding care and the selling of arsenic and other poisonous substances and products is published in "Svensk författningssamling" (Swedish Code of Statutes).
1889:The Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) approve a law on occupational risks. The first labor inspectors are appointed.
1900-1919:Possible arsenic poisoning from paints and wallpaper in houses. Development of new analytical methods indicating arsenic in blood, urine and spinal fluid, and the presence of organic arsenic.
1906:In the "Giftstadga" (regulation on poisons) the poisons are divided in two classes: poisons of first degree and poisons of second degree.
1930:Erik MP Widmark (1889-1945) publishes a method for the quantification of alcohol in blood. His research on the absorption, distribution, and elimination of ethanol in the body was very influential on forensic alcohol analysis and toxicology, and paved the way for innovative traffic safety legislation that stipulated punishable limits of alcohol in the blood of a person driving a car.
1930-1939:Carl Gustav Santesson (1862-1939), professor in pharmacology at Karolinska Institutet, is studying the mechanisms of action of arrow poisons and hallucinogenic natural products.
1939-1941:"Statens institute för folkhälsa" (Swedish Institute for Public Health) was established. Important findings regarding metal toxicity was published. The institute was closed in 1971.
1943:A new "Giftstadga" (Poison Control Act) was launched.
1958:Karl Borg, at the National Veterinary Institute (Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt, SVA) demonstrates high levels of methyl mercury from pesticide treated seeds in seed eating birds.
Today the science of toxicology and ecotoxicology as well as health- and environmental risk/safety assessments are natural parts of the Swedish society, e.g. at universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations, industries etc. In 1999 and 2005 the Swedish Parliament adopted 16 national environmental quality objectives. The environmental quality objectives create a transparent and stable framework for environmental programmes and initiatives, and serve to guide such efforts at various levels in society. "A non-toxic environment", one of these objectives aims to reduce health and environmental risks associated with the manufacture and use of chemical substances. The Swedish Chemicals Agency is the responsible agency for this objective.
A version of this article was published inInformation inInformation Resources in Toxicology, 4th Edition, Lars Wiklund, Copyright Elsevier (2009).
- Ministry of Agriculture(Jordbruksdepartementet) * Ministry of Culture(Kulturdepartementet)* Ministry of Defense(Försvarsdepartementet)* Ministry of Education and Research(Utbildningsdepartementet)* Ministry of Employment(Arbetsmarknadsdepartementet)* Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications(Näringsdepartementet)* Ministry of the Environment(Miljödepartementet)* Ministry for Foreign Affairs(Utrikesdepartementet)* Ministry of Health and Social Affairs(Socialdepartementet)* Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality(Integrations- och jämställdhetsdepartementet)* Ministry of Justice(Justitiedepartementet)
- FORMAS, Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning(Forskningsrådet för miljö, areella näringar och samhällsbyggande)* Medical Products Agency, MPA(Läkemedelsverket)* National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW)(Socialstyrelsen)* National Food Administration(Livsmedelsverket)* National Veterinary Institute(Statens Veterinärmedicinska Anstalt, SVA)* SWEDAC, The Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment(Styrelsen för ackreditering och teknisk kontroll)* The Swedish Board of Agriculture(Jordbruksverket)* Swedish Chemicals Agency(Kemikalieinspektionen, KemI)** N-Class(Database on Environmental Hazard Classification) (DB)** PRIO(A web-based tool for risk reduction of chemicals) (DB)** Riskline(A bibliographic toxicology database. Also a sub-file of the U.S TOXLINE database. Note: The database is no longer be updated. Last update July 1, 2007) (DB)** SPIN(Substances in Preparations in Nordic Countries) (DB)* The Swedish Consumer Agency(Konsumentverket)* Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research(Forskningsrådet för arbetsliv och socialvetenskap, FAS)* Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI(Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut)* Swedish Environmental Protection Agency(Naturvårdsverket)** ELIN(Web Catalogue of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency) (DB)* The Swedish Gene Technology Advisory Board(Gentekniknämnden)** GMO Regulations in Sweden(Genvägen)
Website of the authorities responsible for the regulations of activities involving GMOs.* VINNOVA, Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems Systems (Swedish)* Swedish Museum of Natural History(Naturhistoriska riksmuseet)** Department of Contaminant Research and The Environmental Specimen Bank(Enheten för Miljögiftsforskning och Miljöprovbanken)* Swedish National Institute of Public Health(Statens Folkhälsoinstitut)* Swedish Radiation Safety Authority(Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten, SSM)* Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency(Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, MSB)* Swedish Research Council(Vetenskapsrådet)* Swedish Work Environment Authority, SWEA(Arbetsmiljöverket)** Occupational exposure limits (Hygieniska gränsvärden)
- Forskning.se (English/Swedish)
Forskning.se is a nationwide website that provides information on research and research findings in Sweden.* The International Chemical Secretariat (ChemSec)* IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute(IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet)* MISTRA, The Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research(Stiftelsen för miljöstrategisk forskning)* News, A New Strategy for the Risk Assessment and Management of Chemicals* Norden - Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers, Official Co-operation in the Nordic Region Region (Swedish)* ReproSafe, Reproduction and Chemical Safety (English/Swedish)* Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)* The Swedish Plastics and Chemicals Federation(Plast- & Kemiföretagen)
- University of Gothenburg(Göteborgs Universitet)** Department of Public Health and Community Medicine(Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa)** The Faculty of Science(Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten)** The Sahlgrenska Academy(Sahlgrenska akademin)** Sahlgrenska University Hospital (SU)(Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset)
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine(Arbets- och miljömedicin)* Karolinska Institutet (English) (Karolinska Institutet (Swedish))
Karolinska Institutet is one of Europe's largest medical universities. It is also Sweden´s largest centre for medical training and research. ** Department of Biosciences and Nutrition(Institutionen för biovetenskaper och näringslära)** Department of Public Health Science
Occupational and Environmental Medicine(Yrkes- och miljömedicin)** The Institute of Environmental Medicine(Institutet för Miljömedicin, IMM)
The Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM) is an interdisciplinary research organization that carries out research, education, and investigations in the fi elds of environmental medicine, toxicology, epidemiology, and health protection.*** IMM offers graduate training programs for higher degrees in Toxicology, Environmental Medicine,Epidemiology, Molecular Toxicology, Cell and Molecular Biology, and Molecular Genetics.**** Master programme in Toxicology(Masterprogrammet i toxikologi 120 hp)**** RA-Courses, Advanced international training courses in health risk assessment.
RA-COURSES is a project funded by European Union Marie Curie Actions that provides training in health risk assessment. The programme includes 10 courses and provides a comprehensive training covering all aspects needed for future scientists and professionals in European health risk assessment.**** TRISK - European Toxicology Risk Assessment Training Programme,2010-2011.
The objective of the training programme is to provide a comprehensive training in toxicological health risk assessment that serves as a model for future European training in risk assessment for accredited European risk assessors.
Five European universities and one research consortium are partners in the TRISK project: University of Milan, Italy, University of Surrey, UK,Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, University of Düsseldorf, Germany, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, Technoalimenti SCpA, Italy.
For more information and application procedure see:
www.cascadenet.org/~RA-COURSES COURSES (choose TRISK in the menu), or:
www.trisk-project.eu/ *** Division of Toxicology**** Enviromental Health Risk Assessment Assessment (Enheten för miljömedicinsk riskbedömning)**** Unit of Work Environment Toxicology Toxicology (Enheten för Arbetsmiljötoxikologi)***** The Swedish Criteria Group for Occupational Standards supplies Standards supplies concensus documents as basis for setting occupational standards by the Swedish Work Environment Authority.***** The Nordic Expert Group produces Group produces full criteria documents as an aid in standard setting by the Nordic countries.*** Division of Epidemiology Epidemiology (Epidemiologi)*** Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Medicine (Arbets- och Miljömedicin)** The University Library - National Resource Library of Medicine(Karolinska Institutet Universitetsbiblioteket)* Linköping University(Linköpings Universitet)** Faculty of Health Sciences(Hälsouniversitetet)* Lund University(Lunds Universitet)** Department of Ecology(Ekologiska institutionen)** Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Arbets- och Miljömedicin)** Faculty of Medicine(Medicinska fakulteten)** Faculty of Science(Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten)* The Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm(Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH)* Stockholm University(Stockholms Universitet)** Department of Applied Environmental Science, ITM(Institutionen för Tillämpad Miljövetenskap)** Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics(Institutionen för Biokemi och Biofysik)** Department of Environmental Chemistry(Institutionen för Miljökemi)** Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology(Institutionen för Genetik, Mikrobiologi och Toxikologi)* Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU(Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU)* Umeå University(Umeå Universitet)** Faculty of Medicine
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine
Unit of Occupational and Environmental Medicine(Yrkes och Miljömedicin)* Uppsala University(Uppsala Universitet)** Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences(Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap)*** Division of Toxicology Toxicology (Avdelningen för toxikologi)** Evolutionary Biology Centre - EBC(Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum)*** Department of Environmental Toxicology*** Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology(Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi)*** Educational Program in Ecotoxicology, Biology(Utbildning)
- Karolinska University Hospital(Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset)* Lund University Hospital (Universitetssjukhuset i Lund)
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine(Arbets och Miljömedicin)* Malmö University Hospital(Universitetssjukhuset MAS) * Norrlands University Hospital Hospital (Norrlands Universitetssjukhus)* Örebro University Hospital (Universitetssjukhuset Örebro)
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine(Arbets- och miljömedicinska kliniken)* Sahlgrenska University Hospital (SU)(Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset)
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine(Arbets- och miljömedicin)* Uppsala University Hospital Hospital (Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala)
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala Uppsala (Arbets och Miljömedicin, Uppsala)
- The Swedish Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences (SAPS) (Läkemedelsakademin, Apotekarsocieteten)** Apotekarsocieteten (English/Swedish)** Läkemedelsakademin (English/Swedish)* Swedish Society of Toxicology (Svensk Förening för Toxikologi, SFT)* Toxicological Council(Toxikologiska Rådet)
The Toxicological Council is an expert body, managed by the Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI), providing scientific advice and consultation on toxicological issues to government agencies within the environmental sector.
Poison Information/Control Centers
- Swedish Poison Information Centre(Giftinformationscentralen)
The Swedish Poisons Information Centre is an autonomic unit of the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies. It started in 1960 and is located at the Karolinska University Hospital.
The centre is staffed by 32 full-time employees, including physicians and pharmacists. The main responsibility of the pharmacists is the telephone service. The physicians, specialized in anaesthesiology, intensive care and clinical toxicology have the medical responsibility.
- Folkhälsoguiden (Public Health Guide)
Stockholm County Council
- Göteborg University, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine(Arbete och Hälsa)
- Legislative Texts on Occupational Safety and Health* Status of Swedish Participation in International Environmental Agreements* The Swedish Environmental Code
- Background Notes: Sweden(US Department of State)* Consular Information Sheet: Sweden(US Department of State)* Culture Crossing: Sweden(Cultural Etiquette for Interacting with People from Sweden)* Portals to the World: Sweden(US Library of Congress)* Swedish News** (from DailyEarth.com)** (from onlinenewspapers.com)** (from Tracone.com)* SWEDEN.SE (The Official Gateway to Sweden)* The Embassy of Sweden in Washington DC* The World Fact Book:Sweden* World Health Organization - Environmental Burden of Disease Country Profile(PDF - 122 KB)
Multilateral Organization Contacts
- Multilateral Organization Resource Contacts
Literature References from TOXLINE (Sweden)
div class new_window Search for Literature Related to Sweden div class new_window Search for Literature by Authors in Sweden
Note:Overlap between these two sets of search results is likely.