index

Index

Review TXP-1


Space Index

0-9 ... 27 A ... 268 B ... 101 C ... 189 D ... 104 E ... 122
F ... 100 G ... 67 H ... 75 I ... 60 J ... 144 K ... 20
L ... 73 M ... 194 N ... 107 O ... 68 P ... 146 Q ... 8
R ... 134 S ... 166 T ... 233 U ... 23 V ... 25 W ... 54
X ... 5 Y ... 9 Z ... 4 !@#$ ... 0    

0-9

Page: 1 - Propanaminium, 3 - amino - N - (carboxymethyl) - N,N - dimethyl -, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts
Overview Uses Auto cleaning products Home cleaning products Soap Shampoo Body wash Hair coloring products Pet shampoo Toxicity Potential Human Health Effects Listed as a suspected immunotixcant and skin or sense organ toxicant (EDF) ANIMAL STUDIES In a st
Page: 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is an industrial solvent widely used to degrease machines, as a dye in the textile industry, and as an additive in aerosols (#EPA). It was set to be phased out w
Page: 1,2- Propanediol
Overview Uses Soaps Personal care products Paint and stain products Automotive care products Indoor cleaning products Lubricants, caulks, adhesives Oil dispersants Toxicity Potential Human Health Effects Listed as a suspected immunotoxicant, neurotoxicant
Page: 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene
Overview 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene, also know as mesitylene, is an aromatic hydrocarbon as well as a volatile organic compound (VOC). It is a clear liquid with a strong, peculiar odor. Used most often in solvents and thinners, 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene producti
Page: 1,3-Dichloropropane
This article is tagged for development and cleanup. Topic editor: Kaitlin Mallory Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Managing Group: Chemicals Group Physical Information Name: 1,3-Dichloropropane Use: industrial solvent Source: Recommended daily intake: none
Page: 1-Dodecanamine, N,N - dimethyl - , N-oxide
Overview Uses Home cleaning produts Soap Body wash Toxicity Potential Human Health Effects Very destructive of mucous membranes. (MSDS) Corrosive- causes burns. (MSDS) Toxicology not fully investigated (MSDS) Harmful if inhaled and in contact with skin. (
Page: 1800s
Please see the Modern Period.
Page: 1900-1939
Please see the Modern Period.
Page: 2 - Propanol, 1 -(2 - butoxy - 1 - methylethoxy) -
Overview Uses Disinfectant sprays Home cleaning sprays and liquids Acrylic latex paint Oil dispersants Hobby paint Adhesive dispereants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed it as a suspected neurotoxicant. (EDF) Prolonged exposure to skin may
Page: 2(3H)-Benzothiazolethione, sodium salt (1.1)
Overview Uses Corrosion inhibitor (e.g. in antifreeze) Fungicide Preservative in paint and on wood Used in dying textiles Useful in electroplating metals Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Its parent chemical is listed as a possible carcinogen by
Page: 2,4,5-D
2,4,5-D Review TXP-1 Table of Contents #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Uses and Benefits #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and Opinion #Teaching Resources #References -#European, Asian, and International Agencies -#
Page: 2,4,5-T
Overview 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) is a chlorophenoxy acid herbicide that is no longer registered for use in the United States. Ester forms of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D were used as defoliants in the Vietnam War (e.g., Agent Orange) and concern
Page: 2,4-D
Topic author: Steven G. Gilbert Topic editor: Starin McKeen Overview 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) is a systemic phenoxy herbicide developed in the 1940s and still in use today. 2,4-D was the first widely used herbicide used to control broadleaf plants, and
Page: 2,4-D Spanish
Información General El 2,4 D: ácido 2,4-dichlorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) es un herbicida sistémico hormonal auxínico muy común, usado en el control de malezas de hoja ancha. Es el tercer herbicida más ampliamente utilizado en Norteamérica, y el más usado en
Page: 2- Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-
Overview Uses Paint/varnish removal agent Herbicide Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as a reproductive toxin. (Haz-map) Listed as a suspected blood, kidney, and neuro toxicant (EDF) Listed as a probable development toxicant. Damage to the
Page: 2-Butoxyethanol
Overview 2-Butoxyethanol is an organic solvent. Its chemical formula is BuOC2H4OH. It is a clear, colorless liquid that smells like ether. Uses 2-butoxyethanol is used in a variety of products: Paints Solvents Oil dispersants Cosmetics Firefighting foam D
Page: 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This article is tagged for development. Overview 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate is a liquid at room temperature that is used as a solvent. It can be absorbed through inhalation, ingestion, and dermally
Page: 2-Furanmethanol, tetrahydro-
Overview Uses Organic and coupling solvent Plasticizer Paint and varnish Oil Dispersant Toxicity Potential Human Health Effects Severe eye irritant (HSDB) People with existing skin disorders may be more susceptible to the effects (HSDB) Chronic exposure m
Page: 2-Naphthylamine
Lead author: Martin Krug Overview 2-Naphthylamine is an aromatic amine. It is used to make azo dyes. It is a known human carcinogen and has largely been replaced by less toxic compounds. 2-Naphthylamine is prepared by heating 2-naphthol with ammonium zinc
Page: 2-Nitropropane
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview 2-Nitropropane, also known as 2-NP, is a high volume chemical that the general population is not exposed to frequently, but does affect people working with the chemical. Occupational
Page: 2-Propanol, 1-(2-butoxy-1-methylethoxy)
Overview 2-Propanol, more commonly known as isopropyl alcohol is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor Uses 2-Propanol, 1-(2-butoxy-1-methylethoxy) is found in the following products: Disinfectant sprays Home cleaning sprays and liqu
Page: 2009-2010 US Policy Initiatives on Atrazine
In 2009 EPA announced its intention to re-evaluate the human health effects of atrazine, specifically citing new research showing a potential association with birth defects, low birth weight, and premature births, and an intent to review evidence of carci
Page: 2012 THA abstracts
Abstract format download the format as a pdf file THA Abstract Submission - Instructions for Authors 1. If possible abstracts should be in 12-point Times New Roman font. 2. Abstracts must contain a title, the names of all authors and their affiliations. 3
Page: 2012 THA Conference
2012 Conference - Toxicology History Association The first Toxicology History Association webinar will be in January 2013 - stayed tuned for details. Location: phone and web When: January ??, 2013 Extras: Toxicology History Room posters will be reviewed o
Page: 4-Anisaldehído
Información General 4-Anisaldehído (también: p-anisaldehyda, aldehído anísico) con fórmula química C8H8O2, es un compuesto orgánico que se encuentra comúnmente en las fragancias, tanto sintéticas como naturales. El compuesto consta de un anillo de benceno
Page: 9- Octadecenoic acid (9Z) -, monoester with 1,2 - propanediol
Overview Uses Glossy enamel paint Oil Dispersants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful Potential Effects on Marine Environment Suspected to be an environmental toxin References http://www.cosmeticsdata
Page: 9- Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-
Overview Uses Soaps and detergents Cream and lotions Butter, cheese, banana and meet flavors Hair dyeing/tinting ingredient Insecticde, fungicide, and weed control Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Skin and eye irritant (Haz-map) Moderate irritat

A

Page: A Civil Action
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview A Civil Action is Johnathon Harr work that was made into a 1998 film of the same title starring John Travolta and Robert Duvall. Both are based on real-life events that took place in
Page: A Global Bibliographic Perspective of Toxicology
By Dale A. Stirling As this bibliography is a continually evolving document, we encourage recommendations and contributions from our readers. Moreover, because the scope of the bibliography is international, we want to add citations reflecting the global
Page: A Peaceful World
Relevant Content on Toxipedia: Washington Nuclear Museum and Education Center (WANMEC), Particles on the Wall, Children's Rights, Women In Peace   "It is not enough to say we must not wage war. It is necessary to love peace and sacrifice for it." - Martin
Page: A Small and Large Dose of Toxicology
Course Description and Material Do you want to learn more about the principles of toxicology and the health effects of chemical exposures? You will benefit from "A Small Dose of Toxicology," a basic course based on the book A Small Dose of Toxicology by S
Page: A Small Dose of Alcohol
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Steven G. Gilbert Introduction Viewed through the lens of toxicology, alcoholic beverages provide a fascinating window into our relationship with a substance that many of us consume because of its intoxicating p
Page: A Small Dose of Arsenic
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in arsenic. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Arsenic webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about arsenic
Page: A Small Dose of Solvents
Author: Steven G. Gilbert Copyeditor: Maria M. Williams Solvents: Quick Facts Use: varied - recreational (alcohol) to industrial (gasoline, degreasers) Source: synthetic chemistry, petroleum products; plant oils Recommended daily intake: none (not essenti
Page: A Small Dose of...
A Small Dose of Toxicology By Steven G. Gilbert A Small Dose of Toxicology - The Health Effects of Common Chemicals (2004) (CRC Press). More information, including PowerPoint slides for each chapter, is available at www.asmalldoseof.org. Available from Am
Page: A-J
Glossary of Toxicology Terms #A - #B - #C - #D - #E - #F - #G - #H - #I - #J - K-Z Key AN: antonym RT: related term SN: synonym A abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution. (#CEHN) abiological: See SN abiotic. (#IUPAC) abio
Page: Abraham Jacobi
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Abraham Jacobi (May 6, 1830 - July 10, 1919) is considered the father of pediatrics. He opened the first children's clinic in the United States. He joined the faculty of New York Medi
Page: Absidia species
PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS Pulmonary infections and mucorosis in immunocompromised individuals. Zygomycosis (sub)cutaneous infections, invasive infection, keratitis ( 1,2) IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA) White to grayish-brown, r
Page: Absinthe
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview                         !Absinthe_poster.2.12.15.08.pdf|thumbnail, align=right!                           Absinthe is traditionally a distilled, highly alcoholic (45%-75%) beverage. I
Page: Academia de Ciencias toxicológicas
Información General La Academia de Ciencias Toxicológicas (ATS) fue establecida en 1981.  Su propósito es para certificar toxicólogos que son reconocidos por sus colegas por su conocimiento y criterio científico sólido. La Academia concede el título de mi
Page: Academy of Toxicological Sciences (ATS)
Overview The Academy of Toxicological Sciences (ATS) was established in 1981. Its purpose is to certify toxicologists who are recognized by their peers for their expertise and sound scientific judgment. The Academy awards the title of Fellow to experts wh
Page: Accidente de Chernóbil
Información General El accidente de Chernóbil fue un accidente nuclear sucedido en la central nuclear de Chernóbil(Ucrania) el sábado 26 de abril de 1986. Considerado, junto con el Accidente nuclear de Fukushima I en Japón de 2011, como el más grave en la
Page: Acetaminofeno
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} Farmacologia e Metabolismo   Acetaminofeno (paracetamol, N-acetil-p-aminofenol, 4-hidroxiacetanilida, APAP) é amplamente utilizado como analgésico e antipirético, seus efeitos adversos são raros em doses terapêutic
Page: Acetaminofén
El paracetamol (DCI) o acetaminofén (acetaminofeno) es un fármaco con propiedades analgésicas, sin propiedades antiinflamatorias clínicamente significativas. Actúa inhibiendo la síntesis de prostaglandinas, mediadores celulares responsables de la aparició
Page: Acetaminophen
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Jeffery Moffit Pharmacology and Metabolism Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, 4-hydroxyacetanilide) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic. Adverse effects from acetaminophen (APAP) are rar
Page: Acetona
La acetona o propanona es un compuesto químico de fórmula química CH3(CO)CH3 del grupo de las cetonas que se encuentra naturalmente en el medio ambiente. A temperatura ambiente se presenta como un líquido incoloro de olor característico. Se evapora fácilm
Page: Acetone
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is a common industrial solvent and the
Page: Acetylcholine
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Acetylcholine Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory facts: General facts: Environmen
Page: Acremonium sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (5-9) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Trichothecene toxin: Verrol4-acetate (10); antibiotics: Cephalosporin C (13) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS Pulmonary infections and mucorosis in immunocompromised individuals. Zygomycosis (sub)cutaneous infecti
Page: Acridine
Overview Acridine, C 13 H 9 N, is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle. Acridine is also used to describe compounds containing the C13N tricycle. Acridine is structurally related to anthracene with one of the central CH groups is replaced by nit
Page: Acrylic Acid
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Nick Thorp Introduction Acrylic acid (CAS number 79-10-7) is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCO2H. It is the simplest unsaturated carboxylic acid, consisting of a vinyl group connected directly to a c
Page: Activism and Engagement
Relevant content on Toxipedia: Advocacy Organizations, Ethical Considerations, Women in Peace, Washington Nuclear Museum and Education Center (WANMEC), Particles on the Wall   "Modern society will find no solution to the ecological problem unless it takes
Page: Add a new page
It is quick and easy to add a new chemcial, drug, or topic to toxipedia.. Pages are created by puting the name in square brackets. To add a new chemical go to the chemical list page and add a new chemical by merely typing in the chemical name and the surr
Page: Admin
Page: Advanced Features
Advanced Features Review TXP-1 Viewing page history Adding comments to a page Searching Saving pages to a PDF document Printing pages
Page: Advisory Board
Overview The Advisory Board is made up of leading scientists from academia and the public sector, from undergraduate and graduate toxicology professors, and from the technological sector as well. Together, the group advises Toxipedia and staff on strategi
Page: Advocacy Organizations
Section Author: Maria M. Williams This section of Toxipedia provides information on nonprofit organizations around the world advocating for policies that eliminate toxic pollution. The World Library of Toxicology, hosted by Toxipedia, offers country-speci
Page: Advocacy Organizations - Africa
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Page: Advocacy Organizations - Asia, Middle East, and Oceania
ASIA AND MIDDLE EAST CHINA Clear the Air: "Clear the Air (CTA) is committed to the introduction and implementation of measures to significantly reduce air pollution in Hong Kong, through advocacy and education." <iframe width="425" height="350" frameborde
Page: Advocacy Organizations - Central and South America and the Carribean
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Page: Advocacy Organizations - Europe
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Page: Advocacy Organizations - North America
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Page: Advocate the Value of Toxicology
The Issue There is a need to provide integrated and targeted messages to defined audiences on the value of Toxicology as a science. The goal is to increase the reliance of all audiences on sound toxicological sciences. SOT has conducted numerous programs
Page: Aegean Sea oil tanker spill
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   The Aegean Sea tanker oil spill was a spill that occurred on December 3, 1992 when the double-bottom Greek-flagged oil tanker, Aegean Sea, en route to Repsol refinery in A Coruña, S
Page: Africa
Cobras Non-spitting cobras Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) Snouted cobra (Naja annulifera) Forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca) Cape cobra (Naja Nivea) Spitting cobras Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica) Black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) Red sp
Page: African coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Aspidelaps scutatus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southern Af
Page: African puff adder
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bitis arietans Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Coagulants, haemorrhagins, cytotoxins (necrotoxins), Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geogra
Page: Agent Orange
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Agent Orange was the nickname given to a herbicide and defoliant used by the US Military in the Vietnam War. It was one of the rainbow herbicides (the others being Agents Purple, Pink, and Gre
Page: Agent Orange poster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The United States conducted a tactical herbicide program during the Vietnam War to remove foliage that provided enemy cover. Agent Orange 1 mixture of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (
Page: Agricola
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Georg Agricola was a German scholar of the sixteenth century who was later dubbed the "father of mineralogy." Agricola studied physics, philology, philosophy, medicine, and chemistry
Page: Air Fresheners
This page is from the P2RIC's SustainUpdates section from the University of Nebraska-Omaha Author: Chad Wetzel Overview  Air Fresheners are a common commercial product used to create a  pleasant smelling and clean indoor atmosphere in homes and businesses
Page: Ajka alumina plant accident
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Ajka alumina sludge spill was an industrial accident at a caustic waste reservoir chain of the Ajkai Timföldgyár alumina plant in Ajka, Veszprém County, in western Hungary. On Oct
Page: Al-Ghazālī
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Abū Ḥāmed Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (c. 1058 – 1111); (Arabic:ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالی), known as Al-Ghazali or Algazel to the Western medieval world, was a Muslim theolo
Page: Albert Hofmann
Overview Albert Hofmann (b. January 11, 1906 d. April 29, 2008) was a prominent Swiss scientist at the Sandoz Laboratories, Basel (now Novartis) and is best known as the "father" of LSD. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was first synthesized on November 1
Page: Albert Hofmann - Spanish
Información General Albert Hofmann (11 de enero de 1906 - 29 de abril de 2008) fue un químico e intelectual suizo, nacido en Baden, Argovia. Describió la estructura de la quitina, pero es más conocido por ser el primero en haber sintetizado, ingerido y ex
Page: Alberto Magno
Información General San Alberto Magno O.P. (Lauingen, Baviera, 1193/1206 – Colonia, 15 de noviembre de 1280) fue un destacado teólogo, geógrafo, filósofo y figura representativa de la ciencia medieval. Su humildad y pobreza fueron notables, y fue un frail
Page: Alberto Magno (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Alberto Magno (1193 - 1206 - 15 de novembro de 1280), também conhecido como Santo Alberto, o Grande, e Alberto de Colônia, foi um frade dominicano que se tornou famoso por seu amplo conhecim
Page: Albertus Magnus
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Albertus Magnus (1193/1206 - November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his comprehensive knowledge an
Page: Alchemy
ALCHEMY    Review TXP-2 Overview —word alchemy itself was derived from the Arabic word الكيمياء al-kimia —Alchemy is the art of liberating parts of the Cosmos from temporal existence and achieving perfection At its root, alchemy sought to solve and hold d
Page: Alchemy of Happiness
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Alchemy of Happiness (Kimiya-yi Sa'ādat (Persian: كيمياى سعادت‎) was written by Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī, approximately 1105, a Persian theologian, philosopher,
Page: Alchemy to Toxicology
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Alchemy and its blend of mystical and scientific reach for immortality and wealth is a fascinating, though largely debunked and discredited discipline. While the word conjures images
Page: Alcohol Case Studies
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder Despite alcohol's long history of use, its effects on the developing fetus were not recognized until the early 1970s. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) is the result of maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
Page: Alcohol Information and References
European, Asian, and International Agencies • England - Department of Health (DOH) Alcohol Misuse Information.Online: < http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Healthimprovement/Alcoholmisuse/index.htm> (accessed: 13 July 2008). The DOH provides extensive in
Page: Alcohols, C12-16, ethoxylated
Uses Laundry Detergent Oil Dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Inhalation may be harmful (NOAA) Irritating to eyes and respiratory tract (NOAA) Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes (NOAA) Potential Effects on Marine Environment Very
Page: Alcohols, C9-11, ethoxylated
Uses Auto cleaning products Home cleaning products Hair products Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Severely irritating to eyes. Causes burning sensation, redness, swelling, and/or blurred vision (MSDS) May cause moderate irritation to the skin (M
Page: Aldicarb
Topic editor: Dan Becker Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Managing Group: Chemicals Group Overview Aldicarb is a multi-use pesticide that controls populations of agriculturally-harmful insects and nematodes. Belonging to the carbamate family of pesticides,
Page: Aldicarb (Spanish Version)
Información General Aldicarb (2-metil-2-(metiltio) propanal O-(N-metilcarbamoil) oxima) es un compuesto químico perteneciente a la familia de los carbamatos y es empleado fundamentalmente como insecticida. Es la sustancia activa en el Temik, un plaguicida
Page: Aldicarbe
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Page: Aldo Leopold
Lead Author: Steven Gilbert Overview Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was an American bioethicist, ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. He wrote A Sand County Almanac, published in 1949, and was influential in the development of mode
Page: Aldrin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Aldrin is an insecticide that enters the insect's body (and in the environment) and quickly converts to Dieldrin. It is harmful and it
Page: Aldrín (Spanish)
Farmacología y Metabolismo   Aldrín y dieldrín son los nombres técnicos de dos compuestos estructuralmente similares que se usaron como insecticidas. Ambos son sustancias químicas manufacturadas y no están naturalmente en el ambiente. Nombre científico de
Page: Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov (September 15, 1828, Chistopol - August 17, 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857-1861), the first to incor
Page: Aleksandra Buha
Aleksandra Buha received her Master degree in Pharmacy from Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade in 2009. After graduation, she decided to continue her education at the same faculty and focus her career aspiration on the area of toxicology. She is
Page: Alexander Litvinenko
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (December 4, 1962 - November 23, 2006) was a Russian ex-KGB colonel and ex-FSB lieutenant-colonel who died following exposure to polonium 210 on Novem
Page: Alexander the Great
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Alexander the Great (July 356 BC - June 11, 323 BC) was the king of Macedon (336-323 BC) and one of the most successful military commanders in history. on June 10-11, 323 BC, Alexande
Page: Alexandra Zissu
ALEXANDRA ZISSU writes about green living, food, and parenthood. She is the author of The Conscious Kitchen (2010), co-author of The Complete Organic Pregnancy, and two books due out in 2011  -- one with a sustainable meat butcher, the other with the foun
Page: Alfred Nobel
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Alfred Bernhard Nobel (b. October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden - d. December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer, and the inven
Page: Algal Bloom
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Overview #Red Tide #External Links #References   Overview Structure Retrieved from Plant Management in Florida Waters. Algal Blooms occur in both fresh and saltwater environments whe
Page: Ali Banagozar Mohammadi
Ali Banagozar Mohammadi  Assistant Professor of Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology at Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.Tabriz. Iran He has a board Certificate in Forensic Medicine & Medical Toxicology. He received specialize
Page: Ali Hassan al-Majid
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert     Ali Hassan al-Majid, or "Chemical Ali", is a first cousin of former Iraqi Dictator Saddam Huessein. He was in charge of organizing and carrying out Chemical Weapons attacks on the ethnic K
Page: Alice Hamilton
Overview Alice Hamilton, MD (February 27, 1869 - September 22, 1970) was the founder of occupational medicine. The first female faculty member at Harvard Medical School, Alice Hamilton was well known for her research in the field of industrial toxic subst
Page: Alice Hamilton Spanish
Información General Alice Hamilton, MD (27 febrero 1869 a 22 septiembre 1970) que la fundadora de la medicina industrial nació el 27 de febrero de 1869 en New York, pero vivió durante su infancia en Indiana. Era la segunda de los cinco hijos de Montgomery
Page: Alice Hamilton: Founder of Occupational Medicine
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Alice Mary Stewart
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Alice Mary Stewart (October 4, 1906 - June 3, 2002) was a British physician and epidemiologist specialising in social medicine and the effects of radiation on health. Her study of rad
Page: Aliso Canyon gas leak
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview     — The Aliso Canyon gas leak also called Porter Ranch gas leak started on October 23, 2015.  It was an uncontrolled ongoing natural gas eruption from a leaking gas well at the Alis
Page: alkaloid coniine
CONIINE Coniine or (S)-2-propylpiperidine, C8H17N, is a poisonous alkaloid found in poison hemlock and the Yellow Pitcher Plant, and contributes to hemlock's fetid smell. It is a neurotoxin which disrupts the central nervous system. It is toxic to all cla
Page: Alkylphenol Ethoxylates
This page is in development Overview The alkylphenol ethoxylates are non-ionic surfactants in wide use as wetting agents, emulsifiers, and dispersants in paints and coating, residential and commercial cleaning products, in pesticide formulations, and in t
Page: Allen Human Brain Atlas
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On May 24, 2010 The Allen Institute for Brain Science launched the Allen Human Brain Atlas, a publicly available online atlas charting genes at work throughout the human brain. The Al
Page: Allergenicity References
Fungal Glossary Allergenicity References as provided by Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology   1 Atlas of Clinical Fungi. 2nd edition. G.S. de Hoog, J.Guarro, J.Gene & M.J. Figuerras. - Centraalbureau voo
Page: Allison Camp
Allison Camp is a University of Washington graduate with a B.S. in Neurobiology and a B.A. in Psychology. She is currently pursuing a PhD in Environmental Toxicology at North Carolina State University. When not in the lab, Allison enjoys running, hiking,
Page: Alois Alzheimer
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Alois Alzheimer (June 14, 1864 - December 19, 1915) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist who first defined Alzheimer's Disease on November 3, 1906. In 1901, Alzheimer observ
Page: alpha decay
text Contents #text #text #text #text #text #text #text Topic editor: editor name Lead author: author name Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory fa
Page: Alpha Particles
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Alpha Particles are a highly ionizing form of particle radiation which have low penetration (a piece of paper can block them). They consist of two protons and two neutrons bound toget
Page: alpha recoil
Alpha recoil is defined as the process by which an atom (radon) recoils in the opposite direction from the path of particle ejection following the radioactive decay of its parent atom (#UMN). References University of Minnesota. Radon.
Page: Alternaria sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (18-23,69,73,77,127,201,231,254,274,282,341,735) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Alternariol (3,24,25), Alternariol monomethylether (3,24,25), L- tenuazonic acid (3,25), Altertoxins I, II, III (3,25), Altenuene (25), Brefeldin A (26), Cytocha
Page: Alzheimer's Disease
Overview Alzheimer's Disease, first defined on November 3, 1906 by Alois Alois Alzheimer, is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory, cognition, and behavior.
Page: Amanda Hitt
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Amanda Hitt Overview Ms. Hitt graduated cum laude from the University of Baltimore School of Law with a concentration in Government and Public Service. After law school, Ms. Hitt received her MPH from the Johns
Page: Amanda Justice
Articles Flea Dip
Page: Amazonian coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Micrurus spixii Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxin and myotoxins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: G
Page: Amazonian toad-headed pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Bothrocophias hyoprora Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geogr
Page: America's First Bioethicist: Aldo Leopold
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: American Association of Poison Control Centers
Overview The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) is a national voluntary health organization founded in 1958 that represents the nation’s 57 poison centers. The AAPCC supports poison centers in their public health mission to prevent poi
Page: American Board of Toxicology (ABT)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The American Board of Toxicology (ABT) was founded in 1979 to establish a process for certification of Toxicologists which would evaluate and document competency in the field of Toxic
Page: American Chemical Society
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Background Toxicological Perspective External Links References
Page: American Lung Association
American Lung Association The mission of the American Lung Association® is to prevent lung disease and promote lung health. The American Lung Association® is the oldest voluntary health organization in the United States, with a National Office and constit
Page: Amgen
Amgen Overview Amgen Inc. (NASDAQ: AMGN, SEHK: 4332) is an international biotechnology company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. Located in the Conejo Valley, Amgen is the largest independent biotech firm. The company employs approximately 14,00
Page: Amharic Translation of Milestones of Toxicology
Amharic Translation of Milestones of Toxicology   The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into Amharic by Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Ph.D., Epidemiology, Univeristy of Washington. To open or download the Amharic Milestone poster click HERE.    
Page: Amides, coco, N,N-bis(hydroxyethyl)
Uses Auto cleaning products Pet shampoo Bubble bath liquid Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as a likely carcinogen (HSDB) Listed as a suspected immunotoxicant (EDF) Listed as a skin sensitizer (Haz-map) Skin irritant (HSDB) Potential Effe
Page: Amides, tall oil, fatty N,N-bis(hydroxyethyl)
Uses Auto cleaning products Silver polish Oil Dispersants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health ANIMAL STUDIES In a study on mice, sensory and pulmonary irritation were observed at low concentrations (EPA) Potential Effects on Marine Environment - Re
Page: Aminas
Farmacología y Metabolismo   Amoniaco Amina primaria Amina secundaria Amina terciaria Las aminas son compuestos químicos orgánicos que se consideran como derivados del amoníaco y resultan de la sustitución de uno o varios de los hidrógenos de la molécula
Page: Amines
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Amines are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines are derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been
Page: Amines, tallow alkyl, ethoxylated
Overview Uses Toilet bowl cleaner Hair coloring product Oil Dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health - Potential Effects on Marine Environment Moderate acute toxicity to fish (PANNA) References PANNA
Page: Ammonia
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. important part of fertilizers, worldwide prod
Page: Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) is one of the five most common health conditions caused by marine toxins. It is caused by Domoic Acid, a neurotoxin produced by diatoms in the genus
Page: Amoníaco
  Información General   El amoníaco, amoniaco, azano, espíritu de Hartshorn o gas de amonio es un compuesto químico de nitrógeno con la fórmula química NH3.     Es un gas incoloro con un característico olor repulsivo. El amoníaco contribuye significativam
Page: Amy Bates
Amy Bates - poet, author, singer, environmental activist Author of Head to Toe in Elegant Black (2007) CD of songs - Tell the Sun (2007) Founder of Solutions for Humanity, Community, and the Environment From - Solutions for Humanity, Community, and the En
Page: Angela Martinez Dy
Currently in Seattle, WA. Identifies As: poet, writer, analyst, educator, mentor, spoken word artist, cultural activist filipina, chinese, spanish, mestiza amerikkkan bisexual, multiracial, more-than-meets-the-eye former isangmahal member, Youth Speaks Se
Page: Aniline
Overview Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H7N. It is the simplest and one of the most important aromatic amines, being used as a precursor to more complex chemicals. Its main application is in the manufacture
Page: Animal & Plant Toxins
Animal Toxins Lizards Snakes Botulinum Toxin Carcinogens Coagulants Cytotoxins (Necrotoxins) Chat Haemorrhagins Myotoxins Nephrotoxins Neurotoxins Tetrodotoxin Plant Toxins Cocaine castor bean Strychnine Opium Urushiol Health Effects of Plant Toxins Poorl
Page: Animal Toxins Overview
ANIMAL TOXIN DOSSIER Name: Animal Venoms and Poisons Use: medicinal uses Source: spiders, insects, snakes, lizards, fish, and frogs Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: varies but can be very fast, e.g. bites Sensitive individuals: c
Page: Anna J. Harrison
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Anna J. Harrison, PhD, (December 23, 1912 - August 8, 1998) was a leader in the field of chemistry and Professor Emeritus of Chemistry at Mount Holyoke College, In 1978, she became th
Page: Annulated turtle-headed seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: Ansam Sawalha
Ansam Sawalha, PhD Ansam Sawalha, Ph.D., translated The Milestones of Toxicology poster in November 2011. She is an Associate Professor of pharmacology and toxicology, Founding director, Poison Control Center, An-Najah National University, Palestinian aut
Page: Antarctica
Country Editor: Iain Grant Senior Medical Officer British Antarctic Survey Medical Unit, Plymouth, UK Email: peter.marquis@phnt.swest.nhs.uk  Antarctic Environment, Pollution, Science Antarctica Regional Report (from UNEP Chemicals) (PDF - 3 MB) Australia
Page: Anthony Mazzocchi
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Anthony Mazzocchi or Toni Mazzocchi (June 13, 1926 - October 5, 2002) was an American labor leader. He was a high elected official of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Internationa
Page: Anthracyclines
Topic author: Kathleen Duke Copyeditor: Maria M. Williams Overview The anthracyclines (figure of Daunorubicin, the prototypical anthracycline) are a class of antibiotic chemotherapeutic agents originally derived from a soil bacterium, Streptomyces. They a
Page: Anthracyclines - History
Anthracyclines are the product of efforts in Europe and the U.S. to explore the natural world for potential anti-cancer drugs. The concept was the unlikely offspring of military efforts, during World Wars I and II, to develop more effective chemical warfa
Page: Anthracyclines - Mechanism of Action
Anthracyclines attack cancer cells by multiple mechanisms, inhibiting replication and damaging cells in ways that promote cell death. They work primarily by DNA intercalation[1]. In order for a cell to divide, the DNA in the cell's nucleus must be unravel
Page: Anthracyclines - References
General and History Altman, Lawrence K., "Dr. Louis S. Goodman, 94, Chemotherapy Pioneer, Dies", New York Times, November 28, 2000 (sec. A, p. 27). Brouwer, C.A.J., Gietema, J.A., van den Berg, M.P., Bink-Boelkens, M.T.E., Elzenga, N.G., Haaksma, J., Kamp
Page: Anthracyclines - Side Effects and Late Effects
Cardiotoxicity The anthracyclines, particularly doxorubicin (generic name Adriamycin), are known to cause heart failure in a subset of patients in a dose-dependent manner. In other words, the higher the cumulative dose, the larger number of patients who e
Page: Anthracyclines - The Future of Anthracyclines
For over twenty years, anthracyclines have been a mainstay in the treatment of breast cancer, one of the most common cancers among women worldwide and the number one cause of death among US women under the age of 50. Recent studies have suggested that che
Page: Anthracyclines - Varieties and Derivatives
The large and growing family of anthracyclines now includes over 2,000 known analogs. There are several anthracycline anti-cancer drugs, and many of the newer, synthetic versions were developed in the hopes of diminishing the cardiotoxicity while maintain
Page: Antibiotics in Aquatic Farming
Author:  Cody Rogers Contributed to Toxipedia as part of the University Partnerships Program. Overview Aquatic farms today account for more than 40% of fish production according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (PETA, 2015). Although this level of
Page: Antidepressants in Our Water
Richard A. Warner A new study suggests that trace amounts of the antidepressant Prozac (fluoxetine) are endangering freshwater mussels. Around 70 percent of freshwater mussel species native to North America, which play a key role in the ecology of streams
Page: Antiquity
Period Overview The Antiquity Period, often referred to as Ancient History, covers the period form the founding of modern civilization in Mesopotamia, around 3500 BCE, to the start of the Middle Ages. Among the key events during this period is the fall of
Page: Antoine Lavoisier
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794), the "father of modern chemistry", was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He found and
Page: Antoinette (Toni) Hayes
Background Antoinette (Toni) Hayes received a MS in toxicology from Northeastern University. Toni Hayes is a Research Scientist II (Exploratory Toxicologist) at Wyeth Biotech in Andover, MA. She has passionate interest in the history of toxicology. She co
Page: Antraciclinas
Información General Las antraciclinas son un grupo de medicamentos (antibiótico) que se emplean en el tratamiento del cáncer. Son agentes citostáticos obtenidos a partir de cultivos de Streptomyces. Los más utilizados son doxorrubicina, epirrubicina, daun
Page: Antraciclinas (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} Visão Geral  As antraciclinas (figura da Daunorrubicina, a antraciclina prototípica) são uma classe de agentes quimioterápicos antibióticos originalmente derivados de uma bactéria do solo, Streptomyces. Elas estão
Page: Antraciclinas - Efeitos Adversos e Efeitos Tardios
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} Cardiotoxicidade As antraciclinas, particularmente a doxorrubicina (nome genérico Adriamicina), são conhecidas por causar insuficiência cardíaca em um subconjunto de doentes de uma forma dependente da dose. Em outr
Page: Antraciclinas - História
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} As antraciclinas são o produto de esforços na Europa e nos EUA para explorar o mundo natural para possíveis drogas anticancerígenas. A ideia se baseia em usar as substâncias criadas por esforços militares, durante
Page: Antraciclinas - Mecanismo de Ação
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} As antraciclinas atacam as células cancerígenas por múltiplos mecanismos, inibindo a replicação e danificando as células de forma a promover a morte celular. Elas trabalham principalmente por intercalação de DNA [1
Page: Antraciclinas - O Futuro das Antraciclinas
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} Por mais de vinte anos, as antraciclinas têm sido um pilar no tratamento do câncer de mama, um dos cânceres mais comuns entre as mulheres em todo o mundo e a principal causa de morte entre as mulheres estadunidense
Page: Antraciclinas - Referências
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} Visão Geral e História Altman, Lawrence K., "Dr. Louis S. Goodman, 94, Chemotherapy Pioneer, Dies", New York Times, November 28, 2000 (sec. A, p. 27). Brouwer, C.A.J., Gietema, J.A., van den Berg, M.P., Bink-Boelke
Page: Antraciclinas - Variedades e Derivados
{authors} Authors: adrianamelo {authors} A grande e crescente família de antraciclinas inclui agora mais de 2.000 análogos conhecidos. Existem várias drogas anticancerígenas de antraciclina e muitas das versões sintéticas mais recentes foram desenvolvidas
Page: April 1
1826 - Theodore George Wormley was born today 1826 in Wormleysburg, Pennsylvania, a medical doctor at the University of Pennsylvania who wrote The Micro Chemistry of Poisons, the first American book dedicated to poisons. 1970 - President Richard Nixon tod
Page: April 10
1755 - Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann was born today 1755 in Meißen, Saxony. Hahnemann was a German physician who founded homeopathic medicine and introduced the practice of quarantine. 2002 - Rouge River oil spill today 2002 reported to EPA includi
Page: April 11
2006 - Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announced today 2006 that Iran successfully enriched uranium. previous day - next day
Page: April 12
2004 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced a ban today 2004 on the sale of dietary supplement ephedra. 1955 - The polio vaccine, today 1955, developed by Dr. Jonas Salk, was declared safe and effective. 1880 - Eben McBurney Byers was born toda
Page: April 13
1519 - Catherine de Medici, born today 1519 wife of King of France Henry II. After the death of her husband, she became a power in world politics through her liberal use of poisons. previous day - next day
Page: April 14
1964 - Rachel Louise Carson died today 1964, American marine biologist whose book Silent Spring is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. previous day - next day
Page: April 15
1452 - Leonardo da Vinci born today 1452, great Renaissance thinker, chemist, artist, architect, and inventor. 1730 - Felice Fontana born today 1730, an Italian physicist who discovered the water gas shift reaction in 1780. He is also credited with launch
Page: April 16
1947 - The Texas City Disaster today 1947 generally considered the worst industrial accident in American history. The fire detonated approximately 2,300 tons of ammonium nitrate and the resulting chain reaction of fires and explosions killed at least 581
Page: April 17
2013 - West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas caught fire and exploded today 2013.  At least 15 people were killed, many local first responders, more than 160 were injured and more than 150 buildings were damaged or destr
Page: April 18
1991 - Sir Austin Bradford Hill, died today 1991, an English epidemiologist who pioneered the randomized clinical trial. previous day - next day
Page: April 19
1912 - Glenn Theodore Seaborg born today 1912, won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements," including plutonium, was born on this day. 1813 - Benjamin Rush died today 1813 was a physician, writer,
Page: April 2
1840 - Emile François Zola born today 1840 was an influential French writer, His book Germinal (1885), about conditions in a coal mine leading to a strike, was denounced by the right-wing. 1960 - President John F. Kennedy today 1960 address regarding heal
Page: April 20
1902 - Marie Curie today 1902 from a ton of pitchblende, one-tenth of a gram of radium chloride was separated. 2010 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill today 2010 massive ongoing oil spill stemming from a sea floor oil gusher in the Gulf of Mexico that started
Page: April 2010 Newsletter
Happy Earth Day from all of us here at Toxipedia. We hope that today you have a chance to celebrate our planet whether it be spending lunch outside or choosing organic products at the grocery store tonight. We are excited to announce the debut of two addi
Page: April 21
1915 - Garrett Hardin, born today 1915 an influential ecologist most famous for his 1968 paper The Tragedy of the Commons. 1948 - Aldo Leopold died today 1948, American bioethicist, wrote A Sand County Almanac, published in 1949. previous day - next day
Page: April 21st - An Interesting Day in Bioethics
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: April 22
1904 - J. Robert Oppenheimer, born today 1904, an American theoretical physicist. Oppenheimer is best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons. 1915 - The use of poison gas i
Page: April 23
1564 - William Shakespeare, some say born today 1564, who made early reference to poisoning in the 16th century. previous day - next day
Page: April 24
1787 - Mathieu Orfila, born today 1787 in Minorca, Spain, toxicologist and chemist and the founder of the science of toxicology. 1990 - Gruinard Island, Scotland, today 1990 was officially declared free of anthrax after 48 years of quarantine. 2013 - Sava
Page: April 25
1981 - Nuclear power plant in Tsuruga, Japan today 1981 more than 100 workers were exposed to radiation during repairs at the facility. 2014 - The Flint water disaster started today 2014 when drinking water was contaminated with Lead in a serious crisis i
Page: April 26
1564 - William Shakespeare, was baptized today 1564, made early reference to poisoning in the 16th century. 1900 - Charles Francis Richter born today 1900, an American seismologist and physicist, famous as the creator of the Richter magnitude scale which,
Page: April 27
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: April 28
1932 - A human vaccine for yellow fever was announced. previous day - next day
Page: April 29
1997 - The Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, went into effect today 1997, which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons among its signatories. previous day - next day
Page: April 3
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: April 30
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: April 4
1932 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald died today 1932 received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibrium, and reaction velocities. 1968 - Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated today 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee, a ma
Page: April 5
2005 - ABC News anchor Peter Jennings today 2005 informed his viewers that he has lung cancer. This was his final broadcast. 1967 - Hermann Joseph Muller died today 1967, was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate (1946) known for his work o
Page: April 6
1869 - Celluloid, was patented today 1869 generally regarded as being the first thermoplastic. 1928 - James D. Watson, born today 1928 American geneticist and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on DNA. 1938 - Teflon was ac
Page: April 7
1906 - Mount Vesuvius erupted today 1906 and devastated Naples, Italy. 1933 - U.S. Prohibition was repealed today 1933 for beer containing no more than 3.2% alcohol by weight (or 4% by volume); this occurred eight months before the ratification of the Ele
Page: April 8
1985 - Bhopal Disaster: India files suit today 1985 against Union Carbide for the disaster at a pesticide plant that killed an estimated 2,000 and injured another 200,000. previous day - next day
Page: April 9
what happened to day?. previous day - next day
Page: April Update and Earth Day Celebration
Toxipedia, IPMopedia, and the upcoming World Library of Toxicology wanted to wish all of you a happy Earth Day and thank you for supporting our endeavors.Since Senator Gaylord Nelson started the Earth Day campaign in 1970, serious challenges have spurred
Page: Aquatic coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Micrurus surinamensis Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxin and myotoxins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antive
Page: Aquatic Farming
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and interest in aquatic farming. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Food and Agriculture webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn
Page: Arabian and Ein Geddi burrowing asps (Atractaspis microlepidota ssp.)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Atractaspis microlepidota Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Sarafotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Sinai Egypt, Jord
Page: Arabian cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja haje arabica Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxin Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southwest Saud
Page: Arabian horned viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Cerastes gasperettii Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Arabia
Page: Arabic Milestones
Arabic Translation of Milestones of Toxicology The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated by Ansam Sawalha, Ph.D., Associate prof/ pharmacology and toxicology, Founding director, Poison Control Center, An-Najah National University, Palestinian aut
Page: Arafura mangrove seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Parahydrophis mertoni Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable myotoxins, neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: No
Page: Are You Looking for the Ideal Biopesticide?
Are you looking for the ideal biopesticide? Would you be interested in obtaining the ideal biopesticide that can safely and effectively control even resistant insects, arachnids, mold, mildew, fungi, and viruses without harming beneficial organisms? If so
Page: Argentinian black-headed snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Phalotris lemniscatus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Coagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Brazil,
Page: Armenian rock viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Vipera raddei Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Eastern Turke
Page: Arnold J. Lehman
Overview Arnold Lehman collaborated with other scientists in his field to produce the first large compilation of toxicology - "Procedures for the Appraisal of the Toxicity of Chemicals in Foods". Lehman also was a co-founder of the Society of Toxicology a
Page: Arsenic
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert *Also see our longer, updated article on arsenic, adapted from A Small Dose of Toxicology by Dr. Steven Gilbert.   Physical Information Name: Arsenic Use: wood preservative, Pesticides, semico
Page: Arsenic - Additional Resources
European, Asian, and International Agencies World Health Organization (WHO). Online: < http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs210/en/index.html> (accessed: 9 April 2009). WHO arsenic in drinking water fact sheet. World Health Organization (WHO). Arse
Page: Arsenic - Recommendation and Conclusion
Arsenic is an ancient and well-known hazard and, along with lead and mercury, is a significant environmental contaminant. The inorganic form is far more toxic than organic arsenic, which is commonly found in seafood. Arsenic-contaminated drinking water is
Page: Arsenic - References
"Environmentally healthy homes and communities. Children's special vulnerabilities." (2001). Am Nurse, 33(6), 26-38; quiz 39-40. Hall, A. H. (2002). "Chronic arsenic poisoning." Toxicol Lett, 128(1-3), 69-72. Jiang, J. Q. (2001). "Removing arsenic from gr
Page: Arsenic Act of 1851
Overview The Arsenic Act (14 & 15 Vict c 13) was an Act of Parliament passed by the United Kingdom Parliament in 1851, during the reign of Queen Victoria. Arsenic was at the time widely used as a pigment and in agricultural products such as sheep dressing
Page: Arsenic Case Studies
Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic in drinking water is a worldwide problem affecting the lives of millions of people. High levels of arsenic in local soil or rock contaminate the local water supply. In the United States, the federal government has struggl
Page: Arsenic Poisoning
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in arsenic. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Arsenic webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about arsen
Page: Arsenic Poisoning in Bangladesh
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in arsenic. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Arsenic webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about arsenic
Page: Arsenic, Introduction and History
Arsenic is a versatile metal, forming various compounds, either inorganic or organic. Inorganic arsenic is widely distributed in nature, usually in the trivalent form (As3+) but also as pentavalent arsenic (As5+). Most rocks contain 1-5ppm of arsenic. The
Page: arsénico
Información General El arsénico (del persa Zarnikh, oropimente amarillo o bien del griego arsenikón, masculino) es un elemento químico de la tabla periódica cuyo símbolo es As y el número atómico es 33. En la tabla periódica de los elementos se encuentra
Page: Arthrinium sp.
MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED 3-nitropropionic acid (59-63), antibiotic: Terpestacin (64,65) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Cutaneous infections, onychomycosis (1,2), mycosis (66). IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA) Fast growing, white, floccose
Page: Articles
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Page: Articles by Steven Gilbert
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Page: Artificial Reefs, Sunken Ships, and Military Toxins
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Lester Jacobson Overview There are a variety of toxic materials used by the US military that pose a threat to the health of humans and the environment. Many explosives are very toxic and some pose a cancer risk
Page: Asbesto
Información General El asbesto, también llamado amianto, es el nombre de un grupo de minerales metamórficos fibrosos. Están compuestos de silicatos de cadena doble. Los minerales de asbesto tienen fibras largas y resistentes que se pueden separar y son su
Page: Asbestos
    Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in asbestos. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Asbestos webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about a
Page: Asbestos Strike
Asbestos Strike Review TXP-1 Contents 1. Toxicological Perspective 2. Biography 3. Internal Links 4. References 5. External Links Toxicological perspective Biography Internal Links Asbestos References External Links
Page: Ascanio Sobrero
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ascanio Sobrero (October 12, 1812 - May 26, 1888) was an Italian chemist who in 1847 discovered nitroglycerin, a powerful explosive and vasodilator. His student, Alfred Nobel, patente
Page: Ascanio Sobrero (Spanish)
Información General Ascanio Sobrero (12 de octubre de 1812, Casale Monferrato, Primer Imperio Francés - 26 de mayo de 1888, Turín, Italia) fue un químico italiano que descubrió la nitroglicerina, un potente explosivo y vasodilatador.  Su alumno, Alfred No
Page: Ashwin Gupta
Articles Bisphenol-A
Page: Asish Mohapatra
Mr. Asish Mohapatra is a toxicologist and a health risk assessment specialist with twelve years professional work experience in environmental public health science, toxicology, health risk assessment and environmental management. He has post graduate and
Page: Aspartame
formaldehyde, aspartame, and migraines, the first case series, Sharon E Jacob-Soo, Sarah A Stechschulte, UCSD, Dermatitis 2008 May: Rich Murray 2008.07.18 http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.htm Friday, July 18, 2008 http://groups.yahoo.com/gr
Page: Aspergillus clavatus
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (79,80,81) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Ascladiol (3), Brefeldin A (26), Cytochalasin E (3,82), Ribotoxins (83,84) Patulin (3,82) Triptoquivalins(3,86) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Agent of allergic aspergillosis, pulmonary infection (1,2), en
Page: Aspergillus flavipes
MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Antibiotics: Flavipucine (88), Spiroquinazoline (89) of the aspochalasin group: TMC-169 (90) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Cutaneous aspergillosis in immunocompromised children (1,2), aspergilloma (91), osteomyelitis (92). IDENTIFICATION CH
Page: Aspergillus flavus
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (2,93-97) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Aflatoxin B1, B2 (3,98-100,235) , Aflatrem (99,101,102), Aspergillic acid (3), Cyclopiazonic acid (3, 98,99), Kojic acid (3,103,104), 3-nitropropionic acid (3), Ochratoxin A (242), Sterigmatocystin (1
Page: Aspergillus fumigatus
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (81,95,96,125,127-130,201,210,252,254) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Aurasperon C (131), Ergot alkaloids (132,133), Fumigaclavines A&C (131,134), Fumagillin (131,135), Fumigatin (136), Fumitoxins A,B,C,D (3,137), Fumitremorgins A, B & C (3,
Page: Aspergillus glaucus
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic(154) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Asperentin (157), Echinulin (3,155-157), Erythroglaucin (157,158), Flavoglaucin (157), Physcion (3,157,158), Physcionanthrone B (158), Physciondianthrone (158), Ochratoxin A (159,242), Sterigmatocystin (16
Page: Aspergillus nidulans
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (96,163) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Echinocandin B (349), Nidulotoxin (3,164), Penicillin(3,165), Sterigmatocystin (3,166,234,235,349) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS Known to cause bone, disseminated infection, abscess (167,168,170), endocardit
Page: Aspergillus niger
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (81,95,173-177,231) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Malformins B&C (3,178,179), Naphtho-gamma-pyrones (3), Ochratoxin A (180,181), Oxalic acid (3,182). PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Etiologic agent of otomycosis (183-185), "Swimmer's ear" (1,2), o
Page: Aspergillus ochraceous
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (96,192) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Ochratoxin (100,193,194,195,196,235), Penicillic acid (195,196) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  A case of antromycosis (1), mycotoxin induced tubulonephritis, chronic interstitial nephropathy (197,198)  IDENT
Page: Aspergillus restrictus
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (199-201) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Restrictocin (202,203,204) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Cases of endocarditis (1,205) aortitis (206), onychomycosis (1), aspergilloma (1,207) and pulmonary aspergillosis (1,208) in immunocompromised. IDEN
Page: Aspergillus sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (8,67-74,341) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Various toxins produced by different species. PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Onychomycosis (378-383,578,907), keratitis (161,621,622), sinusitis, otitis, pulmonary disease, heart, cerebral infections (1
Page: Aspergillus sydowii
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (96) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Deoxymulundocandin (209), Mulundocandin (240), Sydowinin (3) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  onychomycosis(1,241), invasive aspergillosis and keramycosis (1, 2) IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE A
Page: Aspergillus terreus
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (210-213,231) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Citrinin (3,214), Citreoviridin (3,215), Comtactin ( 420), Lovastatin (421), Mevinolin (420), Patulin (3), Terrein (3), Territrems A,B,C (216,217,218) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Invasive bronchopulm
Page: Aspergillus ustus
MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Austamid (3), Austdiol (3,224), Austocystins (3,225), Austin (3,226), Sterigmatocystin (227) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Infected skin burns (1), pulmonary (229), disseminated infection (1, 2,230), otitis (1), cutaneous aspergillosis (1,1
Page: Aspergillus versicolor
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (231,232) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Averufin (232,239), 5-methoxysterigmatocystin (24,243), Mycoversilin (246,247), Nidulotoxin (3), Ochratoxin A (242), Sterigmatocystin (3,24,234, 235,236,237,238,239,243,244), Versicolorin (239), Versi
Page: Aspirin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-in
Page: Aspirina
El ácido acetilsalicílico o AAS (C9H8O4) (conocido popularmente como aspirina, que era una marca que pasó al uso común) es un fármaco de la familia de los salicilatos. Se utiliza frecuentemente como antinflamatorio analgésico (para el alivio del dolor lev
Page: Ataque de gas sarín en el metro de Tokio
Información General  El ataque de gas sarín en el metro de Tokio, conocido en los medios japoneses como el incidente con sarín del metro (地下鉄サリン事件 Chikatetsu Sarin Jiken), fue un acto de terrorismo doméstico perpretrado por miembros del grupo Aum Shinriky
Page: Atlas mountain viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Vipera monticola Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable Procoagulants and haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range
Page: Atrazine
Topic author: Kathleen Duke Copyeditor: Maria M. Williams Overview Atrazine is the most widely used herbicide in the United States and in the world (excluding the European Union). Its breakdown product, deethylatrazine, is one of the most commonly found g
Page: Atrazine - Effects on Human Health
Atrazine has been studied continuously for decades, for both its agricultural benefits and its human health and environmental impacts. This body of research has been aggregated and analyzed by regulators and researchers over time, generating a host of met
Page: Atrazine - Effects on Wildlife
A student of environmental science would be hard pressed to find a more contentious topic than the environmental effects of atrazine. On the one hand, atrazine's manufacturer, Syngenta, can point to a body of research finding no significant correlations b
Page: Atrazine - History and Uses
Atrazine is a member of the chlorophenoxy-triazine (or triazine) family of herbicides, arguably the most widely used class of agricultural chemicals to date. Development of the triazines began in the early 1950s by J.R. Giegy, Ltd., whose chemists and bio
Page: Atrazine - References
Ackerman, F. The Economics of Atrazine. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health (2007). 13:441-448. Alavanja MCR, Sandler DP, Lynch CF, Knott C, Lubin JH, Tarone R, Thomas K, Dosemeci M, Barker J, Hoppin JA, Blair A. Cancer Incidence in the Agricultural Health Stu
Page: Atrazine Regulation in Europe and the United States
In 1991, Italy and Germany banned the use of atrazine due to the discovery of persistently high concentrations in drinking water and public concern about its safety, based on animal studies. In 2004, motivated by atrazine's prevalence and relatively long
Page: ATSDR
Overview The ATSDR is mandated by congress to perform certain actions relating to the public health concerns of hazardous substances in the environment. The agency is obligated to conduct public health assessments of waste sites, provide health consultati
Page: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This page is under development. Thank you for your patience! Overview Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD or ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder. It is the most commo
Page: August 1
1946 - President Harry S. Truman signed today 1946 the Atomic Energy Act (also known as the McMahon Act), establishing the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology. previ
Page: August 10
2009 - Handlová mine blast occurred on 10 August, roughly 330 metres (1,080 ft) underground in Trencin Region. 20 people were killed, nine others suffered minor injuries and were taken to hospital for treatment. previous day - next day
Page: August 11
1673 - Richard Mead was born today 1673, an English physician who wrote A Mechanical Account of Poisons in Several Essays, the first English-language book dedicated to poisonous animals and plants. previous day - next day
Page: August 12
30 B.C.E. - Cleopatra VII (Last Queen and Pharaoh of Egypt) allegedly committed suicide today 30 BCE by allowing a snake to bite her on the arm. 2004 - Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, died today 2004 an English electrical engineer who shared the
Page: August 13
1868 - Arica Earthquake occurred on 13 of August, near Arica, then part of Peru, now part of Chile. It's estimated magnitude was between 8.5 and 9.0. A tsunami (or multiple tsunamis) in the Pacific Ocean was produced by the earthquake, which was recorded
Page: August 14
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: August 15
1951 - St. Anthony's Fire - Today 1951 one in twenty of the 4000 inhabitants Pont Saint Esprit, a village in France, suffered hallucinations and other health effects from ergot poisoning. 1785 - Thomas de Quincey, born today 1785, an English author and in
Page: August 16
1888 - John Pemberton died today 1888, an American druggist, known for being the inventor of Coca-Cola. previous day - next day
Page: August 17
1886 - Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov died today 1886, Russian chemist who discovered formaldehyde. previous day - next day
Page: August 18
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: August 19
1994 - Linus Carl Pauling, died today 1994, an American chemist, peace activist, author, and educator, one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century. previous day - next day
Page: August 2
1937 - Marijuana Tax Act passed to day 1937, made it a federal criminal offense to possess, produce, or dispense hemp. Non-medical uses were prohibited in California (1915) and Texas (1919). 1939 - Harvey Spencer Lewis died today 1939 a noted Rosicrucian
Page: August 20
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Page: August 21
1986 - Lake Nyos in Cameroon today 1986 released a large amount of carbon dioxide (which it contained due to carbon dioxide leaking from a magma pocket below it) and suffocated 1800 people and livestock in surrounding villages. 1943 - Jonathan Schell born
Page: August 22
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Page: August 23
1822 - António Joaquim Ferreira da Silva died today 1822 de Azemeis near the city of Porto, in northern Portugal. During his research and academic life, Ferreira da Silva made notable achievements in analytical chemistry, particularly at the interface of
Page: August 24
79 CE - Mount Vesuvius erupted today 79 CE, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and burying them in ash. Pliny the Elder suffocated from volcanic gases. 1922 - Howard Zinn born today 1922 put history in context, author of best-selling and inf
Page: August 25
1867 - Michael Faraday, died today 1867 was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of th
Page: August 26
1743 - Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier born today 1743, the "father of modern chemistry", a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He found and termed both oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), helped construct the metric system. p
Page: August 27
1911 - Van Rensselaer Potter II born today 1911, an American biochemist who first described "bioethics" in 1970. Bioethics is a new philosophy that seeks to integrate biology, ecology, and medicine with human values. 2013 - David Barker, died today 2013 a
Page: August 28
2008 - An explosion today 2008 at the Bayer CropScience plant in Charleston, West Virginia killed two workers. 1963 - Martin Luther King delivered his "I have a dream" speech in Washington, DC, today 1963. 1919 - Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS,
Page: August 29
1949 - The Soviet Union today 1949,tested its first atomic bomb, known as First Lightning or Joe 1, at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. previous day - next day
Page: August 3
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Page: August 30
1928 - Wilhelm Wien, died today 1928 in Germany. He was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at
Page: August 31
1997 - Britain's Princess Diana died today 1997 in a car crash in Paris at age 36; her driver was thought to have been intoxicated with alcohol. previous day - next day
Page: August 4
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Page: August 5
2009 - Eighteen cattle died from selenium poisoning near Lanes Creek Mine, an abandoned phosphate mine in Idaho. 2015 - The 2015 Gold King Mine waste water spill today 2015 environmental disaster at the Gold King Mine near Silverton, Colorado the EPA acci
Page: August 6
1945 - The atomic bomb Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan today 1945,  by the US Air Force plane the Enola Gay. An estimated 80,000 people were killed and 68% of the city's buildings were destroyed. 1890 - William Francis Kemmler died today 1890 o
Page: August 7
1930 - Joseph Farman born today 1930 was a British geophysicist who published the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica on May 16, 1985. 2015 - Frances Oldham Kelsey, died today 2015, blocked the approval of Thalidomide while at the U.S. Food and Dr
Page: August 8
1998 - Anna J. Harrison, died today 1998, the first woman president of the American Chemical Society and the president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1983-84). previous day - next day
Page: August 9
1945 - The plutonium bomb code-named "Fat Man" was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan today 1945, instantly killing 40,000. 1919 - Leona Woods born today 1919, a brilliant American physicists who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb. p
Page: Aulo Cornelio Celso
Información General Aulo Cornelio Celso (ca 25 BC---ca 50) era un enciclopedista romano y, posiblemente un médico. Su único trabajo sobreviviente De Medicina era sólo una pequeña parte de su enciclopedia mayor, pero es una de las mejores fuentes de conoci
Page: Aulus Cornelius Celsus
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Aulus Cornelius Celsus (ca 25 BC---ca 50) was a Roman Encyclopedist and possibly a physician. His only surviving work De Medicina was only a small part of his larger encyclopedia but
Page: Aum Shinrikyo
References Tucker, Johnathon B. War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda. Pantheon Books, 2006.
Page: Australasia
This region includes New Caledonia, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand and their surrounding archipelagos. Whipsnakes Lesser black whipsnake (Demansia vestigiata) Yellow-faced whipsnake (Demansia psammophis) Brownsnakes Eastern brownsnake (Pseudonaja text
Page: Authors and Editors
We encourage all Toxipedia authors and editors to post a short bio page so that readers can learn a little more about you. If you have an account, you can create your own page. Or, you can email your bio to mwilliams@toxipedia.org and we will post it for
Page: Avicenna
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Avicenna c. 980 – June 1037 (May 1, 980) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. Of the 450 works he is
Page: Azinphos-Methyl
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article is tagged for development.] Overview Azinphos-methyl, or AZM, is a general organophosphate insecticide used on nuts, vegetables, and fruits. It was first registered in 1959. It i

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Page: B-52 Nuclear Weapons Crash
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview On January 21, 1968 a U.S. B-52 military jet carrying nuclear weapons crashed near Thule Air Base in Greenland, contaminating a large area with nuclear debris. References  BBC News
Page: Bacardi Rum
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Facund Bacardí i Massó, a Catalan wine merchant, was born in Sitges, Catalonia, (Spain) in 1814, and emigrated to Cuba in 1830. During this period, rum was cheaply made and not consid
Page: Baia Mare Cyanide Spill
Topic editor: Maria M. Williams Lead author: Aleksandra Buha Overview On the night of January 30, 2000, a dam holding contaminated waters burst at a mining works in Bozinta Mare, Romania, and 100,000 cubic meters of cyanide-contaminated water (containing
Page: Banded krait
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bungarus fasciatus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Pre- Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Indones
Page: Banded water cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Boulengerina annulata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable Post synaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range:
Page: Bando Mitsugoro
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Bando Mitsugoro VIII (October 19, 1906 - January 16, 1975) was one of Japan's most revered Kabuki actors from the 1930s until his death. He was a renowned tachiyaku and katakiyaku, sp
Page: Bardick
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Echiopsis curta Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Anticoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southern Australia (O'She
Page: Barium Compounds
BARIUM COMPOUNDS Review TXP-1 Table of Contents #Chemical Description #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Uses and Benefits #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and Opinion #Teaching Resources #References -#European, Asian
Page: Basel Convention
This page is under development. Introduction The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted in Basel, Switzerland on 22 March 1989. The Convention was initiated in response to numerous int
Page: Bayer
text Contents #text #text #text #text #text #text #text Topic editor: editor name Lead author: author name Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory fa
Page: Bayer CropScience Plant Explosion
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview On August 28, 2008 an explosion at the Bayer CropScience plant in Charleston, West Virginia killed two workers. A 5,000- pound chemical vat exploded and narrowly missed a tank holding m
Page: Beaked seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: BEAR I Report
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The mission of the Committees on The Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) was to provide a thorough review of all that was known at the time about the effects of atomic radia
Page: Beauveria sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (274,275) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Bassianin (276), Oosporein (276), Tennelin (276) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Reported to cause keratitis(1,2,277,278), deep tissue infection (279) IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (
Page: Behavioral Assessment and Research System
Overview The Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) is a computerized testing program that characterizes neurobehavioral function in populations. The program and user interface have been optimized for use with non-mainstream populations, such as
Page: Belarus
Editor: ?? Country Editor: Republican Scientific Practical Center of Hygiene (Ministry of Health) Attn: Irina Zastenskaya, Deputy Director Akademicheskaya str., 8 220012, MINSK Belarus Tel: 375 17 292 50 15 Fax: 375 17 284 03 45 ???: 375 17 292 50 15 ????
Page: Bem-vindos à Toxipedia
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Page: Bem-vindos à Toxipedia (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Bem-vindos à Toxipedia em Português A Toxipedia é uma enciclopédia online, de livre acesso e baseada no modelo wiki, que oferece informação sobre os mais diversos agentes (químicos, físicos ou biológico
Page: Benefits of Giving
Up until now,there has been no non-profit organization in the U.S. devoted to conducting research on food ingredients Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  With FIHRI, we now have a funding and distribution m
Page: Benjamin F. Feingold
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Introduction Benjamin F. Feingold, M.D., (born June 15, 1899 - March 23, 1982) was a pediatric allergist from California, who proposed in 1973 that salicylates, artificial colors, and artifici
Page: Benjamin Rush
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Benjamin Rush (December 24, 1745 - April 19, 1813) was a Founding Father of the United States. Rush lived in the state of Pennsylvania and was a physician, writer, educator, and human
Page: Bensulide
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Bensulide is one of the few Organophosphates used as an herbicide to control grasses and weeds that threaten numerous crops. Its domest
Page: Benzene
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. It is sometimes abbreviated PhH. Benzene is a col
Page: Benzenemethanaminium, N - ethyl - N - 4- 4- ethyl(3-sulfophenyl)methylaminophenyl(2 - sulfophenyl)methylene - 2,5 -cyclohexadien - 1 - ylidene - 3 - sulfo -, inner salt, sodium salt (1.2)
Uses Blue dye used in cleaning products, personal care products (including shampoo and toothpaste), and pet products Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Danger of cumulative effects. Repeated exposure may cause increased incidences of negative effe
Page: Benzenemethanol
Overview Uses Perfumes and flavors Dyes for nylon, textiles, and plastics Plastic packaging Pen ink Hair products Cosmetics and ointments Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as a suspected liver toxicant, neurotoxicant, and immunotoxicant (E
Page: Benzenesulfonic acid, C10-16-alkyl derivs.
Overview Uses Laundry detergent Oil dispersants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health ANIMAL STUDIES In a test on rats, the LD50 was 1470mg/kg of body weight (EPA) In a test on rabbits exposed through the skin experienced erythema, mild edema at 212
Page: Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt (1.1)
Overview Uses Automobile cleaner Home cleaner; lotions Shampoos Hand soap Pet care products Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Low toxicity (HSDB) Symptoms of exposure to this compound may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and skin, bli
Page: Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-
Overview Uses Car wash products Laundry detergent Oil dispersants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Exposure to chemical at levels toxic to adult females may damage the fetus(NJFsheet) Will cause pain and second degree burns after a few minutes o
Page: Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-, compd. with 2-propanamine (1.1)
Overview Uses Home cleaning products Oil dispersants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Ingestion causes mild irritation of mouth and stomach (NOAA) Contact with eyes causes irritation. (NOAA) Prolonged contact can cause mild irritation of skin (N
Page: Benzidine
Benzidine is the trivial name for 4,4'-diaminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine which has been used as part of a test for cyanide and also in the synthesis of dyes. It has been linked to bladder cancer and pancreatic cancer. In common with benzidine
Page: Benzodiazepines
Author: Aleksandra Buha Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Overview Benzodiazepines have been in use for over 30 years and are still widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders and other medical conditions. Benzodiazepines are classified as class
Page: Beredu Teressa
Articles Radon
Page: Berg adder
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bitis atropos Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Drakensburg Ranges of South Af
Page: Bernard Courtois
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, (February 12, 1777 - September 27, 1838) was a French chemist, born in Dijon, France who discovered Iodine in 1811. He also isolated M
Page: Bernard Weiss
University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Molecular Toxicology & Environmental Medicine Cluster Ph.D. Program in Toxicology Professor of Environmental Medicine and Pediatrics B.A. 1949 (New York University) Ph.D. 1953 (University of Rochester
Page: Bernardo Ramazzini
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Bernardino Ramazzini (October 4, 1633, Carpi - November 5, 1714, Padua) was an Italian physician. Ramazzini was one of the first to make the link between worker occupation and health,
Page: beta decay
Overview Beta decay is a form of radioactive decay that emits Beta Particles.
Page: Beta Particles
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei, such as potassium-40, during beta decay a form of Radioactive Decay. Contents
Page: beta-Cyclodextrin
Uses Preparation of cholesterol-free foods Oil dispersants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health May cause allergic skin reaction (MSDS2) "The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated." (MSDS1) Potential eye, skin,
Page: Bhopal Disaster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview In 1984, the accidental release of 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in the heart of Bhopal, India killed thousands of people and injured hundre
Page: Bhopal: 30 Years Later
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Bibron's stiletto snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Atractaspis bibronii Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Possible Sarafotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: not available Geographic range:
Page: Bifenthrin
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Bifenthrin is an insecticide used heavily in the control of red imported fire ants. Due to its high toxicity to aquatic organisms, it is listed as a restricted use pesticide, although it
Page: Bill Witherup
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert William Witherup (1935-2009) Bill Witherup is an author and poet whose writings include Men at Work (1989) and Down Wind, Down River: New and Selected Poems (2000). Quick links: Debs Labor Ens
Page: Binary Weapons
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. In t
Page: Bioaccumulation
Bioaccumulation, or bioconcentration, is the progressive increase in the amount of a substance in an organism or part of an organism that occurs because the rate of intake exceeds the organism's ability to remove the substance from the body. Bioaccumulati
Page: BIODISPERS
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Bioethics, Stem Cells, and Cloning
Topic editor: Maria M. Williams Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert What Is Bioethics? "Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival." - Van Rensselaer P
Page: Biological Properties and Health Effects of Arsenic
Biological Properties Soluble inorganic arsenic compounds, such as arsenic trioxide, are readily absorbed from the intestine (80-90%). Organic arsenic compounds found in seafood are not well absorbed. Arsenic can also be absorbed through the lungs and ski
Page: Biological Properties of Alcohol
Alcohol is readily absorbed from the stomach and the intestine, and the highest blood level occurs about 30 minutes from the time of the last drink. Alcohol absorption is slowed by the presence of food in the stomach; however, once it reaches the small in
Page: Biological Properties of Fungicides
Fungicides were developed to control the fungi and mold that may grow on crops, stored foods and seeds, and in our bodies. Control of plant fungus in agriculture is important not only because fungi can damage crops, but also because some fungi produce tox
Page: Biological Properties of Herbicides
Herbicides are used to kill or damage plants and are the most rapidly growing type of pesticide. Prior to the 1930s, herbicides were nonspecific and often very toxic to humans as well as other animals. In the 1930s, researchers discovered several chemical
Page: Biological Properties of Insecticides
Most chemical insecticides act by poisoning the nervous system. The central and peripheral nervous system of insects is fundamentally similar to that of mammals. A small amount of pesticide can be fatal to an insect, primarily because of the insect's smal
Page: Biological Properties of Lead
The absorption, distribution, and subsequent health effects of lead illustrate the basic principles of toxicology. Foremost is the sensitivity of children to the adverse effects of even low levels of lead exposure. There are many reasons that children are
Page: Biological Properties of Molluscicides
Molluscicides are used to control slugs and snails. Molluscs are a group of invertrebate animals that include shellfish, cephalopods (such as squid and octopus), slugs, and snails. The most commonly used active ingredient in molluscicides is metaldehyde,
Page: Biological Properties of Nicotine
Nicotine has a range of physiological effects and has provided researchers with an opportunity to learn nervous system function. It is readily absorbed through the skin and lungs, but because it is a strong base is not well absorbed in the acidic environm
Page: Biological Properties of Rodenticides
Rodenticides are a broad class of pesticides designed to kill small mammals such as rats and mice. Some rodenticides are anticoagulants and work by inhibiting blood-clotting; these are often used to control rat populations. One of the first anticoagulant
Page: Biological Walls
  Biological Walls Atmospheric Layers Ozone Wall Biological Walls Cell Membranes Atmosphere Without the wall of the atmosphere life would not exist as we know it.  The wall of the atmosphere, usually called, surrounds the earth and is held close to the ea
Page: Biological Weapons Convention
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the
Page: Biomagnification
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Allison Camp   Description Biomagnification refers to the accumulation of toxins through the trophic levels of a food chain. It results in an increased concentration of the toxin in the higher organisms of the
Page: Biomimicry
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Biomimicry (from bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to imitate) is an ancient concept recently returning to scientific thought that examines nature's models, systems, processes,
Page: Biomimicry in the Northwest
Exploring Possibilities for Biomimicry in the Northwest Jan Keller Portfolio Project, Integrative Environmental Sciences September 6, 2009 Contents Introduction Demographics and diversity Land use Food crops Watershed, water sources, and water conservatio
Page: Biomonitoring
What Is Biomonitoring? "Biomonitoring is the assessment of human exposure to environmental chemicals by measuring the chemicals or their metabolites in human blood, urine, saliva, or tissue. The results of such measurement are usually called "body burden.
Page: Bipolaris sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (77,280,281,282,283,284,285,286) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Bipoaroxin (287), Dihydrobipolaroxin (287), BMT-toxin (288), Cytochalasins A&B (27), Pathotoxin (288), Siccanol (64), Sterigmatocystin (237) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Causing all
Page: Bisphenol-A
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in bisphenol A. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new BPA webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about BPA a
Page: Bisphenol-A - Historical Perspective
Book on BPA by Sarah Vogel Vogel, Sarah. “Is It Safe?: BPA and struggle to define the safety of chemicals”, University of California Press, release date, December 20, 2012.   We are all just a little bit plastic. Traces of bisphenol A or BPA, a chemical u
Page: Bisphenol-A: Endocrine Disruptor
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Black Death
  Overview The Black Death, also known as bubonic plague, is a bacterial disease spread by rodents that wiped out around one-third of Europe's population in the mid-14th century. History The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was a devastating pandemic tha
Page: Black mamba
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: Black tigersnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Notechis ater Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, myotoxins, pre- and postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom:
Page: Black-headed bushmaster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Lachesis melanocephala Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Pro- and anticoagulants and Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms
Page: Black-necked spitting cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja nigricollis Physical Information Venom name: Cytotoxins (Necrotoxins), post-synaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins Toxins: α-neurotoxins, potent cytotoxins, cardiotoxins Manner of intake: Sub
Page: Black-speckled palm-pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Bothriechis nigroviridis Basic Information Venom name: Toxins:Procoagulants and haemorrhagins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: rare fatalities Toxicity/symp
Page: bladder exstrophy
A fetus or newborn with exstrophy is often a surprise to both the family & the physician caring for the child. The distraught parents need reassurance at this stage. Unfortunately, because of the rarity of bladder exstrophy, many health care providers do
Page: Blaine Act
Overview The Blaine Act was sponsored by Wisconsin senator John J. Blaine and passed by the United States Senate on February 17, 1933, to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, or Prohibition. The repeal was formally adopted as
Page: Blanding's treesnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Toxicodryas blandingi Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Habitat: General facts: Chemical S
Page: Blue long-glanded coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Calliophis bivirgata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Possible neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Myanmar to Jav
Page: Boeing B-47 Stratojet
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Today January 31, 1958 a Strategic Air Command B-47 Stratojet carrying a fully armed MK-6 nuclear bomb at Sidi Slimane Air Base, Morocco was practicing simulated take-offs when one
Page: Book Resources
This section contains important books related to toxicology. Popular Books POISONED FOR PROFIT - How Toxins Are Making Our Children Chronically Ill by Philip and Alice Shabecoff 2010. From autism to cancer - With indisputable data, the Shabecoffs reveal t
Page: Book Reviews
Books of Note - Some Reviewed   The Rise of the U.S. Environmental Health Movement - By Kate Davies Reviewed by Steven G. Gilbert - review here
Page: Books on Toxicology
Books on Toxicology - Ancient to Modern   Ancient Traité des poisons, also called Toxicologie générale. by Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (April 24, 1787 – March 12, 1853) Paracelsus (born Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheimborn Nov
Page: Boomslang
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Dispholidus typus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Habitat: General facts: Chemical Struc
Page: Border Between US-Mexico compared to Holland-Belgium
  Border Between US-Mexico compared to Holland-Belgium  
Page: Botox
Botox is the trade name for the medical derivative of the botulinum toxin. While botulinum toxin is the most potent neurotoxin known to man, botox is commonly used cosmetically. In minute, diluted doses, botox is injected to specific muscles, causing loca
Page: Botulinum Toxin
Overview Botulinum toxin is among the most deadly naturally occuring Neurotoxins, produced by the naturally occurring Clostridium botulinum and causing the fatal disease Botulism. Minute doses of the toxin can be fatal and according to Arnon et al, "a sin
Page: Botulism
Topic editor: TBD Lead author: Leah Tait Overview Botulism is the illness associated with Clostridium botulinum. There are three main types of the illness: Food-borne botulism Infant botulism Wound botulism Regardless of type, it is the production of botu
Page: Bougainville coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Parapistocalamus hedigeri Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Bougainville Island, P
Page: BPA in Consumer Products Risk Assessment
Summary Bisphenol a (BPA) is a monomer widely used in plastics, canned foods, and dental sealants. BPA is an endocrine disruptor and mimics estrogen in the body. It has been linked to decreased brain function, weight gain, breast cancer, behavioral change
Page: British Roentgen Society
BRITISH ROENTGEN SOCIETY Review TXP-1 Contents 1. Toxicological Perspective 2. History 3. Internal Links 4. References 5. External Links TOXILOGICAL PERSPECTIVE HISTORY INTERNAL LINKS REFERENCES EXTERNAL LINKS
Page: Broadheaded snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Hoplocephalus bungaroides Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Sydney, New Sout
Page: bromine
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Page: Brown Lung Disease
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This page is under development. Thank you for your patience! Overview Byssinosis (brown lung disease) is a chronic condition involving obstruction of the small airways, which severely impairs
Page: Brown treesnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Boiga irregularis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: New Guinea, Solomon Islands, i
Page: Brown-lipped sea krait
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Laticauda laticaudata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins, postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range
Page: Brownfields
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Kaitlin Mallory Overview Brownfields are areas of land, often underused or abandoned industrial sites, that cannot be used to their full potential due to real or perceived pollution hazards. Currently, the Envi
Page: Browsing a Space
Overview The 'Browse Space' view is your window to space-wide summary information as well as to a host of tools relating to the management of your space. You can browse a space from either the Dashboard or from within a space by clicking this icon located
Page: Build for the Future of Toxicology
The Issue The Society of Toxicology currently addresses the needs of its membership by providing a variety of valuable activities. However, it is necessary for the Society and the individual members to plan for the future rather than simply react to chang
Page: Buncefield fire
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Buncefield fire was a major conflagration caused by a series of explosions on December 11, 2005 at the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal, an oil storage facility located near the
Page: Burrowing cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Paranaja multifasciata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Central Afri
Page: Butanedioic acid
Overview Butanedioic acid, also known as succinic acid and spirit of amber, is a dicarboxylic acid that can be obtained from amber. It is approved as a food additive by the FDA. Uses Historically, butanedioic acid was harvested from amber and used externa
Page: Butanedioic acid, sulfo-, 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt
Overview Uses Food additive Detergents Medication Deodorant Oil dispersants Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as a suspected neurotoxicant (EDF) Toxic to blood (MSDS) Classified as moderately toxic. (HSDB) Liquid is strong irritant to eye

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Page: Caballeros templarios
Información General La Orden de los Pobres Caballeros de Cristo y del Templo de Salomón (en latín, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), comúnmente conocida como Los Caballeros Templarios o la Orden del Temple (en francés, Ordre du Temple o
Page: Cadmium (Cd)
Authors: Elissa Grzincic Cadmium is a classic, elemental toxicant that shows various adverse effects and can be fatal depending on the dose. It is the most destructive in chronic exposure. It has caused many problems as an environmental toxicant (through
Page: Cafeína
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Caffeine use dates back to the Stone Age and is today the most widely used stimulant in the world. It is a xanthine alkaloid compound found in plants where it acts as a natural pestic
Page: Caffeine
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Caffeine use dates back to the Stone Age and is today the most widely used stimulant in the world. It is a xanthine alkaloid compound found in plants where it acts as a natural pestic
Page: Caffeine: Stimulant and Moneymaker
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward  A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental hea
Page: calcium phosphide
Chemical Description Calcium Phosphide (CP, Ca3P2) has the appearance of red-brown crystalline and has a melting point of 1600*C. Upon contact of water or acids, it releases phosphine which ignites spontaneously. Uses It is primarily used in making incend
Page: Calculating True Costs in Economics
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert What works in the short run oftentimes costs society infinitely more in the long run. This is true with numerous environmental policies, most notably the management of forests and fisheries in
Page: Calhoun County war ship
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   USS LST-519 was an LST-491-class tank landing ship built for the U.S. Navy in World War II. She was later renamed USS Calhoun County.  Post WW II used to dump unneeded ammunition an
Page: Calicheamicin
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Chemical Structure Just the facts Physical Information Name: Calicheamicin, Mylotarg®, Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Use: Treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia Source: Natural product of bacteria
Page: California Pesticide Exposure
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On July 31, 1998 at 4 a.m., a cotton field was sprayed aerially with a solution containing as active ingredients 0.26% carbofuran (n-methyl carbamate), 0.05% abamectin (macrolytic lac
Page: Camelford water pollution
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   The Camelford water pollution incident, on July 6, 1988, 20 tonnes of aluminum sulphate were accidental dumped into the drinking water supply to the town of Camelford, Cornwall, Eng
Page: Camp Minden
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert   Overview A military ordnance bunker at nearby Camp Minden exploded, October 15, 2012, the blast was contained with minimal damage. Camp Minden is the site of the former Louisiana Army Ammuniti
Page: Can Caution Prevent Autism?
By Elinor Kriegsmann December 4, 2009 The statistics on autism are alarming. A study published on October 5, 2009 in the American Academy of Pediatrics' journal Pediatrics found a parent-reported autism prevalence rate of one in every 91 American children
Page: Cancer
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in cancer. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Cancer webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about cancer an
Page: Cancer - A Short History
The oldest descriptions of cancer date back to Egypt, at about 1600 BC. The so-called Edwin Smith Papyrus describes eight cases of what appears to be breast cancer. The tumors of the breast were treated by cauterization, with a tool called "the fire drill
Page: Cancer - Recommendation and Conclusions
While scientists have made great strides in understanding the causes of cancer and developing treatments, there will always be a risk for developing cancer. The likelihood of developing cancer is related to our individual sensitivity and our dose/response
Page: Cancer - References and Additional Information
European, Asian, and International Agencies • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - World Health Organization (WHO). Online: <http://www.iarc.fr/> (accessed: 07 July 2009). IARC's mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the
Page: Cancer - Regulatory Standards
National and international agencies have established systems to classify agents according to the likelihood that the agent may cause cancer. This is often a difficult process because the information on an agent may be incomplete or inconclusive. Data from
Page: Cancer Case Studies
Soot In 1775, Percivall Pott observed that there was an increased incidence of scrotum cancer in chimney sweeps and suggested that soot might be the cause. This was the first linking of occupational chemical exposure to cancer. Unfortunately this understa
Page: Cape cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja nivea Physical Information Venom name: Potent postsynaptic neurotoxins, cardiotoxins Toxins: alpha (α) neurotoxins, cardiotoxin VII1, phospholipase A2 (w/ myotoxic activity) Manner of int
Page: Carbamates
Notable Carbamates aldicarb (Temik) bendiocarb (Ficam) bufencarb carbaryl (Sevin) carbofuran(Furadan) formetanate (Carzol) methiocarb (Mesurol) methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin) oxamyl (Vydate) pinmicarb (Pirimor) propoxur (Baygon)
Page: Carbaryl
Overview Carbaryl is a general use carbamate pesticide that acts primarily as an insecticide, but is also competent as a molluscicide and acaricide. It is used on a variety of crops including soy, corn, and citrus, and is also applied to livestock and hom
Page: Carbofuran
Overview Carbofuran is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides and is most often marketed under the trade names Furadan and Curater. It is extremely toxic to birds, fish, and bees. In 2008 the US EPA moved to revoke registration of carbofuran, effectiv
Page: Carbon Disulphide
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Carbon Disulphide (CS 2) is a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor similar to Chloroform although it is usually an impure yellowish wi
Page: Carbon monoxide
Coming soon . . .
Page: Carbophenothion
[This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Carbophenothion is an organophospate insecticide and an acaricide classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) (#EXTOXNET PIP). Just the facts Physical Infor
Page: Carcinogens
Also see our main page on cancer. Lead author: Leah Tait Overview Carcinogens are substances, whether chemical or physical, that cause cancer. Cancer is the uncontrolled division and growth of cells; these cells can spread and invade surrounding tissues,
Page: Caring for Children
Relevant content on Toxipedia: Children’s Environmental Health, Children's Rights, Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Toxicology   “To waste, to destroy our natural resources, to skin and exhaust the land instead of using it so as to increase its usefuln
Page: Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Carl Wilhelm Scheele (December 9, 1742 - May 21, 1786) was a brilliant German-Swedish chemist credited with discovering numerous chemical substances including oxygen (before Joseph Pr
Page: Carl Wilhelm Scheele (Spanish)
Información General Carl Wilhelm Scheele (nacido el 9 de diciembre de 1742 en Stralsund, muerto el 21 de mayo de 1786 en Köping) fue un brillante químico farmaceútico sueco nacido en Pomerania (Alemania). Es conocido por sus trabajos farmacéuticos y por e
Page: Casarett & Doull's Toxicology
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Louis J. Casarett & John Doull first edited, Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, in 1975. In 2013 the 8th edition was edited by Curtis D. Klaassen, published by McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 978-0-
Page: Casarett and Doull's Toxicology Spanish
Información General Louis J. Casarett & John Doull primera edición, Toxicología: la ciencia básica de venenos, en 1975. En 2001, la sexta edición fue editada por Curtis D. Klaassen, publicado por McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 0071347216   External Links Descarga gra
Page: Caspian cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja oxiana Physical Information Venom name: Potent postsynaptic neurotoxins Toxins: α-oxiana neurotoxin, alpha-neurotoxins, minor cytotoxins. Manner of intake: Subcutaneous, intravenous, intr
Page: castor bean
The castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a plant species of the Euphorbiaceae (the evolution of this plant family is relatively unexplored) the sole member of the genus Ricinus and of the subtribe Ricininae. Its seed is the castor bean which, despite it
Page: Catalina de Médici
Información General Catalina de Medici (13 de abril de 1519 - 5 de enero, 1589) se convirtió en una potencia en la política mundial después de la muerte de su esposo, el rey de Francia Enrique II. Ella finalmente fue capaz de tomar el poder de las persona
Page: Catherine de Medici
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 - January 5, 1589) became a power in world politics after the death of her husband, King of France Henry II. She was finally able to wrestle power
Page: Catherine Deshayes Monvoisin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Catherine Deshayes Monvoisin (La Voisin) (1640-1680) Accused sorcerer and convicted poisoner in France. She was burned at the stake February 22, 1680. External Links Catherine Deshaye
Page: Catherine Deshayes Monvoisin (Spanish)
Información General Catherine Deshayes Monvoisin (La Voisin) (1640-1680) hechicera y envenenadora acusada y condenada en Francia. Fue condenada a ser quedada viva. El 22 de febrero de 1680, el castigo se cumplió en la plaza de la Grève a manos de un verdu
Page: Center for Healthy Environments & Communities
Authors: Samantha Malone, MPH, Center for Healthy Environments & Communities About Us CHEC was founded in 2004 at the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH) under a grant from the Heinz Endowments. Mission & Goals Our mission i
Page: Central American bushmaster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Lachesis stenophrys Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Pro- and anticoagulants and Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: A
Page: Central American jumping pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Atropoides mexicanus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Pro- and anticoagulants, possibly haemorrhagins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symp
Page: Centro de control de intoxicación y envenenamiento
  Información General El primer centro de control de intoxicaciones abrió en Chicago 1953. Segundo centro de control de envenenamiento abrió en la Universidad de Duke, Carolina del Norte en 1954 y la tercera se abre en Boston 1955. Historia Después de la
Page: Cerberin - Ordeals by Poison
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Franck Canorel Overview An ordeal is a judicial rite in which a defendant is subjected to a litmus test of innocence or guilt by means of water, fire or poison. If he is innocent, God will let him live. Otherwi
Page: Cesare Borgia
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Cesare Borgia (September 13, 1475 - March 12, 1507) was a Spanish-Italian condottiero, lord, and cardinal. The Borgias were known Italian assassins who used arsenic to poison people f
Page: Chad Wetzel
P2RIC's SustainUpdates Project Manager
Page: Chaetomium sp.
MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Alternariol monomethyl ether (406), Chaetoatrosin A (407), Chaetoglobosins A-J (24,406,408,409), Chaetochromins A, B, C, D (410,411,414), Chaetocin (409,414), Chaetomanone (406), Chetomin (412,413,414), Chrysophanol (406), Cochliodinol
Page: Charles Darwin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Charles Robert Darwin (February 12, 1809 – April 19, 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, known for his contributions to the science of evolution.  He established that all s
Page: Charles Francis Richter
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Charles Francis Richter (April 26, 1900 – September 30, 1985) was an American seismologist and physicist. Richter is most famous as the creator of the Richter magnitude scale which,
Page: Charles John Samuel Thompson
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Charles John Samuel Thompson (1862- 1943) or C.J.S. Thompson as he was more commonly known, was a physician and writer. By the age of 36 he had already published several books includi
Page: CHASE Program
The U.S. later conducted the CHASE Program - CHASE as an acronym for "cut holes and sink em." The CHASE Program involved loading unwanted munition into aging ships and scuttling them at sea. Most disposals were or conventional weapons but four operations
Page: Chat
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Chat is a fine gravel waste left over after ore production - primarily zinc and Lead mining - that can contain high amounts of toxins. Ore production consisted of grinding and crush
Page: Chemical Corps
The Chemical Corps was established on June 28, 1918 as teh Chemical Warfare Service and is focused on "on warfighting operations and training in support of nuclear, biological and chemical defense, smoke, flame employment, support of weapons of mass destr
Page: chemical injury information network
CIIN
Page: Chemical Off Gas Risk Assessment
chemicals Links and Websites chemical injury information network(CIIN) http://ezinearticles.com/?Off-Gassing-in-Mobile-Homes---5-Ways-to-Reduce-Chemical-Off-Gassing-in-Your-Mobile-Home&id=1293476 carpet case- histories EWG--chemical secrets , http://www.w
Page: Chemical Toxicity Databases
Below are some online resources that Toxipedia visitors may find useful when doing additional research on the toxicity of specific chemicals. CHE (Collaborative on Health and the Environment) Toxicant and Disease Database: summarizes links between chemica
Page: Chemical Warfare
Chemical Warfare Review TXP-1 By the middle of the 1910's, chemicals had been developed to be used by the military as weapons. Agents such as Chlorine, Chloropicrin, Phosgene and Mustard Gas were all used in chemical warfare. Humans and dogs were fitted w
Page: Chemical Warfare Service
External Links Globalsecurity.org on Chemical Warfare Service.
Page: Chemical Weapons
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in chemical weapons. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Global Environment webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to le
Page: Chemical Weapons Convention
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert   The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control agreement which outlaws the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. Its full name is the Convention on the Prohibition o
Page: Chemicals Group
  Overview The Chemicals Group is a collection of Toxipedia users with the ability to edit any of the pages that are governed by the Chemicals Group. Anyone can be a member and can edit, but the page editors still have editorial oversight capabilities to
Page: Chemicals List
If you don't see what you need, please try the search box above. If Toxipedia doesn't have a page for your chemical, we offer a list of Chemical Toxicity Databases for further research. Please also consider contributing content!   NOTE: A complete list of
Page: Chernobyl Accident
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On April 26, 1986 the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident produced a plume of radioactive debris over the Ukraine, Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, UK and eastern USA. Toxicological Pe
Page: Child Health
A growing body of research is providing evidence of negative effects on child health due to pesticide use and exposure by parents. Studies are correlating parental use of pesticides before and during pregnancy as well as after birth with health impacts on
Page: Children's Environmental Health
The text below is adapted from Steven Gilbert's A Small Dose of Toxicology. Introduction Children are at greater risk from exposure to toxic chemicals because of their small size: relative to their size, children eat, drink, and breathe more than adults.
Page: Children's Health Overview
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Principles #Background #Current Events #Advocacy and Opinion #Teaching Resources \ #External Links #References #News Feeds Principles Background Current Events External Links Advocac
Page: Children's Rights
Resources UNICEF: Convention on the Rights of the Child Partnership on Children's Health and the Environment: Guiding Principles on Children's Health Science and Environmental Health Network: Guardianship of Future Generations Child Rights Information Net
Page: Chile
See the World Library of Toxicology.
Page: China first atomic bomb
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview People's Republic of China's conducted its first nuclear weapons test, detonated on October 16, 1964 at the Lop Nur test site, codenamed 596. It was a uranium-235 implosion fission de
Page: Chinese cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja atra Physical Information Venom name: Neurotoxins, cardiotoxins Toxins: alpha-atratoxin, cardiotoxins (I - IV), minor cytotoxin (Burden, 1975) Manner of intake: Subcutaneous, intravenous,
Page: Chinese Milestones
Chinese Translation of Milestones of Toxicology 影响毒理学发展的历史大事记 The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into Chinese by Jianghong Liu, PhD, RN, with editing done by Xinsheng Gu (顾新生). To open or download the Chinese Milestone poster click HERE as
Page: Chlordane
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Chlordane is a persistent organochloride pesticide that was used from 1948 until its cancellation in 1988 due to concerns about effects on the environment and human health. It is a pe
Page: Chlordecone
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Chlordecone, also known as Kepone, is a carcinogenic insecticide related to Mirex, and was used between 1966 and 1975 to control ants a
Page: Chlorfenvinphos
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Chlorfenvinphos is an organophosphate insecticide which was widely used in the past to control household pests such as flies, fleas, an
Page: chlorinated hydrocarbon
Page: Chlorinated Paraffins
Overview Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a complex group of manmade compounds, primarily used as coolants and lubricants in metal forming and cutting. They also are used as plasticizers and flame retardants in rubber, paints, adhesives, sealants and plast
Page: Chlorinated Tris (TDCPP)
Authors: Allison Camp Overview Chlorinated Tris (TDCPP) is a flame retardant currently used in many applications including polyurethane foam found in upholstered furniture (#1). Although banned from use in children’s pajamas in the 1970s due its mutagenic
Page: Chlorine
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Christopher Wright Physical Information Name: Chlorine Molecular Formula: Atomic Number: 17 Color: Greenish-yellow Melting Point: 172.22 CAS No: 7782-50-5 History Chlorine was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Page: Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile
Overview Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile, also know as CS or CS Gas, is the active chemical compound that is found in the most commonly used type of tear gas in North America and Europe. Two British scientists, Ben Corson and Roger Stoughton, developed th
Page: Chloroform
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane, is a liquid that has been used in the past as an extraction solvent for fats, oils, greases
Page: Chloropicrin
Chloropicrin Review TXP-1
Page: Chlorothalonil
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Chlorothalonil is a chloronitrile fungicide that was first registered by the EPA in 1966. It is used to control fungi affecting a number of agricultural crops, turf, and paint. It may al
Page: Chlorpyrifos
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Chlorpyrifos is a toxic crystalline organophosphate insecticide which was used extensively on homes and farms to control pests including mosquitoes, cockroaches, grubs, flea beetles,
Page: Chocoan bushmaster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Lachesis acrochorda Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, anticoagulants,Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Anti
Page: Cholera
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera (see image right). The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting, which rapi
Page: Cholinasterase
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Physical Properties #Mode of Action #Uses #History #Signs and Symptoms of Poisoning #Current Events #Precaution #Regulation #Advocacy and Opinion #Teaching Resources #References   Ph
Page: Cholinesterase Inhibitor
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Cholinesterase Background Cholinesterase , or acetylcholine, produced in the liver, is one of many important enzymes needed for the proper functioning of the nervous systems of humans, other v
Page: CHOOSING SAFER PRODUCTS - Auto Products through Cleaners
Product Category Guidelines on Choosing Products Searchable Databases of Specific Products Automotive Products King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP): Automotive and Marine/Boat Products (antifreeze, batteries, etc.) Healthycar.org (
Page: CHOOSING SAFER PRODUCTS - Clothing through Furniture
Product Category Guidelines on Choosing Products Databases of Specific Products Clothing and Apparel Healthy Building Network and Health Care Without Harm: Future of Fabric report (PDF, geared for hospitals but provides an overview of toxic chemicals in f
Page: CHOOSING SAFER PRODUCTS - Laundry through Toys
      Product Category Guidelines on Choosing Products Databases of Specific Products Laundry and Dry Cleaning Occidental College Pollution Prevention Center: Environmental Garment Care (general information and list of less-toxic dry cleaners in Californi
Page: Christian Hahnemann
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (April 10, 1755 in Meiben, Saxony - July 2, 1843 in Paris, France) was a German physician who founded homeopathic medicine. Hahnemann is also cred
Page: Christine Tarun Santiago
Christine is a senior at the University of Washington studying Environmental Health. After graduation, she plans to work as an Environmental Health Specialist at a local public health department in the state of Washington. After a few years of gaining exp
Page: Christine Zarker Primomo
xxxxx Articles Written by Christine Zarker Primomo Urushiol Articles Edited by Christine Zarker Primomo
Page: Christoph Wilhelm
Christoph Wilhelm PhD Christoph Wilhelm, Ph.D. translated the Milestones of Toxicology poster into German in April 2012. He is a post doc in the Human and Environmental Toxicology Group, University of Konstanz, Germany. Dr. Wilhelm received PhD from the D
Page: Christopher Broyles
Christopher Broyles has degrees in both biology and chemistry and a MA in English. He is currently an editor of scientific documents at the Environmental Protection Agency. He lives in Fairborn, Ohio. Articles Edited by Christopher Broyles
Page: Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert By far the largest use of arsenic is in treating wood to prevent decay or insect damage. Several compounds are used, but the vast majority of wood is treated with a pesticide called chromated co
Page: Chronology of Events of the 1984 Bhopal Accident
Overview Poster Chronology of Events of the 1984 Bhopal Accident (pdf) by Rangaprasad Sarangrajan and Brinda Mahadevan   On December 3rd, 1984, thousands of people in Bhopal, India, were gassed to death after a catastrophic chemical leak at a Union Carbid
Page: Chrysonilia sp.
Chrysonilia sp. ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (200,231,431,432,435)   PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Few cases of endophthalmitis(1,436) and peritonitis (1,437) in patients. IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA) Very fast growing, pale pink to
Page: Chrysosporium sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (438) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Antibiotic : TMC-69 (445) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Rare cases of onychomycosis (1), skin infections (1,2) , invasive (439,440), systemic infection (1,441), osteomyelitis (442) endocarditis (443) in immuno
Page: Chuck Cornett
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Chuck Cornett Overview Associate Professor Department of Chemistry and Engineering Physics UW-Platteville 214 Ottensman Hall Chuck Cornett PhD bio at University of Wisconsin-Platteville
Page: Church Rock Dam
Overview  "In the early morning hours of July 16, 1979, fourteen weeks after the accident at Three Mile Island, all of that changed. The dam at Church Rock burst sending eleven hundred tons of radioactive mill wastes and ninety million gallons of contamin
Page: Cirrhosis
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in cirrhosis. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Alcohol webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about alcoh
Page: Cladosporium sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (67,68,69,70,72,73,81,126,231,254,274,341-343,458) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Cladosporin (459), Epi-, & fagi-cladosporic acid (3), Isocladosporin (459). PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Generally non-pathogenic. Some species involved in pulmona
Page: Class 1
Class 1 Class presentations Overview slides (ppt) - Introduction to ENVH 472/572 Wikis and communication (ppt-8 mgb) - Introduction to wikis and risk communication Class readings Scientists need to speak up the importance of communication Current events t
Page: Class 10
Class 10 - Nanotechnology - risk assessment Guest Lecturer: Wes Smith, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health (CEEH) 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, #100 Class presentations Nanotechnology Risk Assessment PowerPoint Presentation
Page: Class 11
Lead Paint in Washington Mark Crippen and Cristina Haworth Presentation Lead Powerpoint Relevant materials Lead in the News Strong link between crime, lead exposure in children References Center for Disease Control and Prevention Toxipedia Understanding L
Page: Class 12
Class 12 - Fluoride Class presentations Fluoride risk assessment PowerPoint 0.5 mgb Steve Gilbert Class readings Toxipedia-Fluoride NAS fluoride brief (pdf 2 mgb) Considerations on Optimal Fluoride Intake Using Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Outcomes
Page: Class 13
Class 13 - e-Waste Class presentations Class readings e-waste Toxipedia Basel Action Network (BAN) Current events Weed killer in the crosshairs. In recent years, questions have surfaced about atrazine's safety, especially after monitoring programs picked
Page: Class 14
Class 14 - Ephedra and e-Waste Extra reading BPA - risk assessment and study design Class presentations Ephedra Risk Assessment Alyssa Vivas & Ashley Barlond E-waste Risk Assessment Nick Ling & Danica Hill e-waste risk assessment.ppt  Current events Human
Page: Class 15
Duwamish River Contamination Duwamish Contamination Risk Assessment Do and Nizamic Ship Breaking Ship Breaking Risk Assessment Wilson & Flores Current Events World's top firms cause $2.2tn of environmental damage, report estimates. The cost of pollution a
Page: Class 16
Extra Reading PBT House sign on Letter Nanotech Nanotech Risk Assessment Ma & Zemenfeskidus Carbon Nanotubes Powerpoint Chemical Off Gas Chemical Off Gas Risk Assessment Tseng & Carper Current Events Belief in climate change hinges on worldview. Fewer Ame
Page: Class 17
Extra Reading BPA Craziness C&EN (Chemical and Engineering Nnews) - the other site of the BPA debate BPA in Consumer Products Risk Assessment Kelsi Thorsness & Sarah Helgeson & Abbi McClintic Presentation Date: March 2nd Dine Nation Arsenic Risk Assessmen
Page: Class 18
Extra reading - very interesting Ted Sturdevant Congressional Testimony - Director WA Dept of Ecology DBP Presentation DBP Risk Assessment PowerPoint Background The public is well aware of the presence of phthalates in plastic food storage containers, wat
Page: Class 19
Class 12 - Radiation - by Stan Addison - UW Radiation Safety Officer Class presentations Radiation Class readings Chapter 12 "A Small Dose of Toxicology" and Radiation at Small Dose US EPA Radiation UW Radiation Safety Program Information UW Radiation Saf
Page: Class 2
Class 2 Class presentations Introduction to Toxicology - PowerPoint slides 8 mgb Class readings Book - "A Small Dose of Toxicology" - library reserve - web site http://www.asmalldoseof.org Public Health and the Precautionary Principle - pdf - one page pap
Page: Class 3
Class 3 Class presentations Introduction to Health Effects of Lead - PowerPoint slides 3 mgb Class readings Chemical Soup for the Soul Sight Line A rationale for lowering the blood lead action level from 10 to 2 mg/dL by Gilbert and Weiss 2006 Association
Page: Class 4
Class 4 Class presentations Class assignments review Introduction to Risk Assessment - PowerPoint slides 3 mgb Class readings WHO Risk Assessment Tool WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICA
Page: Class 5
Class 5 Class presentations Guest Lecture - Richard Grady, MD - Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals - A Cause For Concern? Associate Professor in the Department of Urology, the University of Washington School of Medicine, 2.) Attending, Division of Pediatric U
Page: Class 6
Melamine Risk Assessment Class 6: Powerpoint Melamine Risk Assessment Presentation Readings - toxipedia - Smith article Place Makes the Poison Melamine in the News http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126255525849313997.html Melamine is known to cause renal to
Page: Class 7
Class 7 Class presentations Guest - Melissa Lawent on Peace Corp (first 5 min of class) Mercury Risk Assessment PowerPoint (4 mgb) - Steve Gilbert Class readings EPA Mercury cement kilins Mercury - Toxipedia Neurobehavioral Effects of Developmental Methyl
Page: Class 8
Class 8 Class presentations Precautionary Assessment PowerPoint (2 mgb) Class readings Precautionary Assessment (pdf) by Steven Gilbert Precautionary Assessment Criteria Public Health and the Precautionary Principle By Steven Gilbert Current events Earthq
Page: Class 9
Class 9 - Bio-monitoring and Fluoride risk assessment Class presentations Pollution in People PowerPoint 12 mgb Fluoride risk assessment PowerPoint 0.5 mgb Hurricane Katrina Risk Assessment PowerPoint Class readings Biomonitoring Toxic Chemicals in Washin
Page: Classification of Persistent Chemicals
Chemical EPA WA State UN (POPs) UN (PTSs) Class Aldrin/Dieldrin X X X X Pesticide Benzo(a)pyrene X X     PAH (See below) Cadmium   X     Metal Chlordane X X X X Pesticide Chlordecone   X X   Pesticide DDT, DDD, DDE X X X X Pesticide Dicofol   X     Pestic
Page: Claude Bernard
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview     Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 - February 10, 1878) was a French medical doctor who aimed to establish a scientific method in medicine that relied on scientific experimentation. Hi
Page: Claude Bernard (Spanish)
Información General Claude Bernard (julio 12, 1813 a febrero 10, 1878) fue un médico francés de medicina que tenía como objetivo establecer un método científico de la medicina que se basaba en la experimentación científica. Su experimentación era muy ampl
Page: Clean Air Act
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Clean Air Act was signed December 17, 1963 by Lyndon B. Johnson in part as a response to several incidence of dirt air or smog such as the London Great Smog of 1955.   Other Clean
Page: Clean Air Acts of 1956
Overview The Clean Air Acts of 1956 an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to The Great Smog of London Disaster in which a large amount of air pollutants from the burning of coal were trapped near the ground. This pollution caus
Page: Clean Air Acts of 1968
Overview The Clean Air Acts of 1968 were the follow-up to the Clean Air Acts of 1956 which reduced pollution in the cities of England by creating smokeless zones, moving power plants out of the cities, and introducing cleaner burning fuels. Both were spaw
Page: Clean Air: Don't Take It for Granted
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Clean Water Act
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Kaitlin Mallory   About The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, amended to the Clean Water Act (CWA) in 1977, was first passed by Congress in 1948. In 1972, the act underwent major reorganization and expansion
Page: Cleaning Up Formerly Used Defense Sites
The Army Corps of Engineers plans to destroy World War I chemical munitions in Spring Valley, a nice neighborhood and Formerly Used Defense Site in Northwest Washington, DC. The munitions were recovered last year from the Glenbrook Road Burial Pit on the
Page: Cleopatra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Cleopatra was the Queen of Egypt who ruled through a combination of power and consorts, having been married to Roman leader Gaius Julius Caeser. Suicide of Cleopatra is said to commit
Page: Cleopatra (Spanish)
Información General Cleopatra fue la reina de Egipto, quien gobernó a través de una combinación de potencia y consortes, después de haber estado casada con el líder romano Cayo Julio César. Se dice que Cleopatra se suicidó con la picada de un una cobra eg
Page: Cleópatra (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Cleópatra foi a última rainha do Egito, ganhando destaque por ter sido uma grande negociante, estrategista militar, com conhecimentos em filosofia, literatura e nas artes gregas, além da sua
Page: Coagulants
Page: Coagulation
Coagulation Introduction: Coagulation, also known as blood clotting, is the biological process of forming blood clots. Coagulation is necessary to maintain bodily function and is the mechanism by which the body ends bleeding from an injury and initiates r
Page: Coastal taipan
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Oxyuranus scutellatus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, myotoxins, Pre- and Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Ant
Page: Coca-Cola: Calories and Caffeine
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward  A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental hea
Page: Cocaine
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert History The leaves of the Coca shrub have been consumed for several hundred years in South America. The leaves are most often usually chewed or seeped into tea and they produce desirable eff
Page: Codeine
Overview. Codeine, or methylmorphine, is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, and antidiarrheal properties. Codeine is one of the 24 different alkaloids found in Opium. Its concentration in Opium ranges from 0.3 - 3.0% and is synthesized from mo
Page: Colaboración con la Toxipedia
en breve…
Page: Collaborate
What neets to be done? toxipedia is about working together to empower people with information so they create a better, more sustainable world. Add to the list To do list know any history? Add your favoriate tox history fact.
Page: Colombia
Editor: Steven G. Gilbert Country Editor: Jesus Olivero Environmental and Computational Chemistry Department of Chemistry Campus of Zaragocilla University of Cartagena Tel: 57-5-6698179 or 57-5-6698180 or 57-5-6698181 Fax: 57-5-6698323 Email: joliverov@un
Page: Comet
Please help us make the comet page. Contents #text #text #text #text #text #text #text Topic editor: editor name Lead author: author name Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: T
Page: Common krait
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bungarus caeruleus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Pre- and Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Nep
Page: Common Lancehead
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Bothrops atrox Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, myotoxins, cytotoxins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geo
Page: Complete Primary Repair for Exstrophy
The following video demonstrates the surgical technique of the complete primary repair for exstrophy:
Page: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability, Act (CERCLA)
See Superfund
Page: Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview - CTBT The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations Genera
Page: computed tomography
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (August 28, 1919 – August 12, 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan
Page: Computer Requirements
Computer Requirements Review TXP-1 An internet connection, and THAT'S IT! Because a wiki is a website, you do not need to install any special softare to collaborate on projects. But for best results, use one of the following browsers: Firefox 1.5 Internet
Page: Conference on Limitation of Armament
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert The Conference on Limitation of Armament was held in Washington, D.C. in 1921-22 between representatives of the five major allied powers (Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the United States)
Page: Connecting a Pump Handle to Cholera in 1854
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Conrad Hal Waddington
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Conrad Hal Waddington (November 8, 1905 – September 26, 1975) a British developmental biologist, paleontologist, geneticist, embryologist and philosopher who laid the foundations fo
Page: Consejo Americano de Toxicología
Información General El Consejo Americano de Toxicología (ABT) fue fundado en 1979 para establecer un proceso de certificación de los toxicólogos,y que permita evaluar y documentar la competencia en el campo de la Toxicología.                     
Page: Consejo de los Diez
Información General El Consejo de los Diez, o simplemente los Diez, fue uno de los principales órganos de gobierno de la República de Venecia de 1310 a 1797. A pesar de sus acciones fueron a menudo en secreto, se consideró en general, ser justo y efectiva
Page: Conselho dos Dez
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral O Conselho dos Dez, ou simplesmente os Dez, foi um órgão oficial do governo da República de Veneza entre 1310 a 1797, concebido como uma resposta temporária à revolta liderada por Bajamonte
Page: Constantin Fahlberg
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview                         Constantin Fahlberg (December 22, 1850, in Tambov, Russia - August 15, 1910, in Nassau, Germany) is most known for his discovery, along with Ira Remsen, of sac
Page: Constantin Fahlberg (Spanish)
Información General Constantin Fahlberg (22 de diciembre 1850 , Tambov, Rusia- 15 de agosto 1910 , Nassau, Alemania) analizó en los años 1877/78 para el profesor  Ira Remsen (1846 a 1927) en Johns Hopkins compuestos químicos del alquitrán de hulla  y dura
Page: Consumer Product Safety Commission
Introduction CPSC was created in 1972 by Congress under the Consumer Product Safety Act and began operating in 1973. In the Consumer Product Safety Act, Congress directed CPSC to protect the public "against unreasonable risks of injuries associated with c
Page: Consumption of Food Color Additives and High Fructose Corn Syrup Leads to Zinc Deficiency or Loss in Some Children
What do food color additives and high fructose corn syrup have in common?  High fructose corn syrup and certain food color additives may be sources of mercury exposure because Federal and international food regulations allow mercury containing chlor-alkal
Page: contact
Page: Contact Us
Please email us at questions@toxipedia.org and we will reply as quickly as possible. Thank you!   Toxipedia is a project of the Institute of Neurotoxicology and Neurological Disorders. INND is a nonprofit organization that distributes scientific informati
Page: Contact Us!
For information about presentations or workshops, please contact FIHRI's Executive Director, Renee Dufault, at rdufault@phaccountability.org
Page: Contribute to Toxipedia!
Are you concerned about the effects of toxic chemicals on human health and the environment? If so, please share your knowledge and help educate people who share your concerns and are working to create a more healthy world.   Become an Author: create or ed
Page: Copperhead
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Agkistrodon contortix Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: (Weak coagulants) Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Local pain and swelling An
Page: Corexit 9500
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Corexit 9527
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Corwin Hansch
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Corwin Herman Hansch (October 6, 1918 - May 8, 2011) was an Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Pomona College in California. He became known as the 'father of computer-assisted molecu
Page: Cottonmouth
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Agkistrodon piscivorus Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, myotoxins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southe
Page: Coumaphos
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Coumaphos is a selective organophosphate insecticide used to control a wide variety of insects that affect livestock, including cattle grubs, sc
Page: COZY IN A NO CRIME TOWN
COZY IN A NO CRIME TOWN For a nickel, the town bus took me on the circuit from home to shopping and back with a furtive stop at Newberry's to buy pink-toned chapstick, forbidden to me. There's the curb on which I sat with Jan to smoke my first and last ci
Page: Crawford Long
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Crawford Williamson Long (November 1, 1815 - June 16, 1878) was an American physician and pharmacist best known for his early use of diethyl ether as an anesthetic. Long was born in D
Page: Crohn's Disease
Page: Crumb Rubber
Crumb rubber is the infill used on top of synthetic athletic fields as a cushioning agent between the green blades of plastic "grass". Currently, it is the most widely used of the available infill's; however, use of alternative infill material is growing.
Page: Curvularia sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (73,74,76,77,282-284,286,341,574,575) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Belfedrin A (26), Curvularin (576), Curvularol (577). PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Occasionally a cause of nail (1,578-580,1094), eye (1,2,122,161,579,581-585,621,622), (sub)cu
Page: Cuyahoga River
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert At 11:56 am on June 22, 1969, an oil slick caught fire on the Cuyahoga River just southeast of downtown Cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland's image is still scarred as people recall how "the river caug
Page: Cyanide
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory facts: General facts: Environmental: Recommend
Page: Cyanide Compounds
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Chemical Description #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Uses and Benefits #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and Opinion #Teaching Resources #Refe
Page: Cyanotoxins
Author: Hunter Christian Smith Contributed as part of Toxipedia's University Partnership Program. Overview of Cyanotoxins Cyanobacteria have an important place within the ecosystem, and may have even contributed to the oxygen we breathe. On the other hand
Page: Cyanuric Acid
Please add content on cyanuric acid.
Page: Cyclohexane
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Cyclohexane (C6H12) is a naturally occurring chemical that is also produced synthetically and used as a solvent in numerous industries. A
Page: Cyclohexanol
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert This article is tagged for development. Overview Cyclohexanol is a "high volume chemical" with over 1 million pounds is produced annually in the United States and is used as a solvent in a few i
Page: Cyclohexene, 1 - methyl - 4 - (1 - methylethenyl) -, (4R) -
Overview Uses Flavorings Fragrances Cosmetics Insecticide Insect and animal repellant Paint/varnish/oil remover Fruit-scented lotions Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Suspected liver toxicant, kidney toxicant, neurotoxicant, respi
Page: Cyclosarin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Leah Tait Overview Cyclosarin is a highly deadly chemical warfare agent. It is a member of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound family.  Cyclosarin was not regarded as a high priority chemical warfare age
Page: Cyhalothrin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Cyhalothrin was developed in 1977 as a pesticide to be used against animal, public, and agricultural pests including beetles, aphids, a
Page: Cytotoxins (Necrotoxins)
Page: Czech Republic
Please see the WLT page for the Czech Republic.
Page: César Borgia
Información General César Borgia fue duque, príncipe, conde, condotiero, confaloniero, obispo de Pamplona, con 16 años, arzobispo de Valencia, con 19 años, capitán general del ejército del Vaticano y cardenal con casi 20 años de edad, durante el Renacimie
Page: César Bórgia (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Cesar Borgia (13 de setembro de 1475 - 12 de março, 1507) foi um condotiero espanhol-italiano, senhor e cardeal. Os Borgias foram uma família catalão-italiana influente durante o Renasciment

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Page: Dale A. Stirling
Although Dale Stirling began his career as an historian for the Alaska Department of Natural Resources in 1980, with the passage of Superfund and similar laws and initiatives, he was deep into environmental consulting by 1987. With concurrent training in
Page: Damascus Accident
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Damascus Accident occurred on September 19, 1980, when a socket rolled off a platform and punctured the missile's Stage I fuel tank, subsequently causing the missile to collapse. Th
Page: Dan Becker
Dan Becker's background is in health advocacy and science writing. Last summer, he interned at the Center for Health, Environment & Justice, and is currently interning in NYC with the Blacksmith Institute. He is also the current Editorial Administrator fo
Page: Dangers In Our Home Mold and More
Dangers In Our Home Mold & More   © Copyright 2009 - John A. McBride     Mold: Molds that grow indoors usually have no natural elements to hinder their growth. All mold needs to thrive is water and a food source. Cellulose is the main meal that this fungi
Page: Daniele Pisanello
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Daniele Pisanello Overview Daniele Pisanello is a food lawyer. From 2005 to 2007 He was charged with the scientific planning and implementation of the Master in Food Law established by the University of Turin -
Page: Danielle Morvan
My name is Danielle Morvan and I am a graduating Environmental Science senior at the University Washington Tacoma. I greatly enjoy traveling, yoga, reading great novels, and writing. I hope to become a public health professional focusing on Environmental
Page: Danijela Đukić-Ćosić
Overview / Bio    Danijela Đukić-Ćosić, PhD Dr. Danijela Đukić-Ćosić is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade (www.pharmacy.bg.ac.rs; http://www.bg.ac.rs) and Visiting Professor at the Medical Faculty in Banja Luka, Rep
Page: Darryl Duke
Overview Darryl Duke is a founding partner of Stepstone Technologies Inc. Since 1997, Stepstone has delivered custom information systems for its clients, with a focus on building simple and effective online communities. Previously he served as IT Director
Page: David Barker
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview David James Purslove Barker (June 29, 1938 – August 27, 2013) was an English physician and epidemiologist and originator of the Barker Hypothesis that fetal and early infant condition
Page: David C. Straus
David C. Straus, Ph.D. Professor Microbiology and Immunology TX Tech University Research Interest: Pathogenic bacteriology, role of bacterial endotoxins and exotoxins in disease; The microbiology of indoor and outdoor air; fungal mycotoxins. Research Effo
Page: David G. Farrer
David G. Farrer works at in Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology at Oregon State University. Articles Written by David G.Farrer Poorly Soluble Air Particles
Page: DDT
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in DDT. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Pesticides webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about pesticid
Page: DDT Spanish
Información General El DDT (Dicloro Difenil Tricloroetano) o más exactamente 1,1,1-tricloro-2,2-bis(4-clorofenil)-etano, de fórmula (ClC6H4)2CH(CCl3) es un compuesto organoclorado principal de los insecticidas. Es incoloro y cristalino. Es muy soluble en
Page: DDT: The Chemical Revolution Stumbles into Health and Environmental Issues
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: De Vis' banded snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Denisonia devisi Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Eastern Australia, south Queens
Page: December 1
1910 - Louis Alexander Slotin born today 1910 Canadian physicist and chemist who worked on the Manhattan Project. On 21 May 1946, Slotin was conducting a demonstration when he accidentally initiated a fission reaction, which released a burst of hard radia
Page: December 10
1896 - Alfred Nobel died today 1896, Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer, and the inventor of dynamite. previous day - next day
Page: December 11
1843 - Robert Koch, born today 1843, German physician, famous for the discovery of the anthraxbacillus (1877), the tuberculosis bacillus (1882), and the cholera vibrio (1883) and for his postulates that define a causative relationship between a microbe an
Page: December 12
1999 - Oil tanker Erika sank today 1999 in the Bay of Biscay, about 110 kilometers, off the coast of Brittany, France. About 400 kilometers of shoreline were polluted by the oil, impacting on the fisheries and tourism businesses. It is considered the grea
Page: December 13
1204 - Moses Maimonides died today 1204 a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher who wrote the Treatise on Poisons and Their Antidotes. 2006 - REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals) was signed into law today 2006 by the Europea
Page: December 14
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: December 15
1852 - Antoine Henri Becquerel, born today 1852, a French physicist and Nobel laureate who discovered radioactivity in 1896.  previous day - next day
Page: December 16
1974 - Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) today 1974, the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public. previous day - next day
Page: December 17
1493 - Paracelsus, born today 1493, Alchemist, famous for "The dose makes the poison", often called the "father of toxicology,". 1963 - The Clean Air Act signed today 1963 by Lyndon B. Johnson, partly in response to several incidences of air pollution suc
Page: December 18
  1957 - The Shippingport Atomic Power Station, went on line today 1957, "the world's first full-scale atomic electric power plant devoted exclusively to peacetime went on line.   previous day - next day
Page: December 19
1915 - Alois Alzheimer died today 1915, psychiatrist and neuropathologist who first defined Alzheimer's Disease on November 3, 1906. 1915 - Phosgene was first used today 1915 as a Chemical Weapons in World War I the Germans at Ypres Salient. previous day
Page: December 2
1942 - Manhattan Project: Today 1942, a team led by Enrico Fermi initiated the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. 1949 - Green Run: Today 1949 a secret U.S. Air Force experiment at Hanford Nuclear Reservation (in Washington State) released betw
Page: December 20
1918 - W. Eugene Smith, born today 1918, in Wichita, Kansas, documented the effects of Mercury in Minamata, Japan. 1951 - Nuclear Power first harvested today 1951 when Experimental Breeder Reactor-I powered four light bulbs in Arco, Idaho, USA. 1988 - The
Page: December 21
1946 - Robert Doyle Bullard, born today 1946 in Elba, Alabama known as the 'father of environmental justice'.  He has been a leading campaigner against environmental racism, as well as the foremost scholar of the problem, 1921 - John E. Franz, born today
Page: December 22
1850 - Constantin Fahlberg, born today 1850, who first produced the artificial sweetener saccharin in 1878. 2008 - The Tennessee coal sludge spill occurred today 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in Roane County, Tennessee. Th
Page: December 23
1936 - Gerhard Schrader today 1936 of the I. G. Farbenindustrie laboratory in Leverkusen, Germany first prepared nerve agent Tabun (ethyl dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate, GA). Tabun is the first nerve agent to be created. 1912 - Anna J. Harrison, born toda
Page: December 24
1745 - Benjamin Rush, born today 1745, a physician, writer, educator, and humanitarian, published the first American chemistry textbook. Rush was also the founder of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania and a signer of the U.S. Declaration of Indep
Page: December 25
1642 - Sir Isaac Newton born today 1642, English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. previous day - next day
Page: December 26
1898 - Marie Curie, today 1898, French-Polish physicist and chemist, Nobel prize winner, announced the isolation of Radium. previous day - next day
Page: December 27
1845 - Ether anesthetic used  today 1845 for childbirth for the first time by Dr. Crawford Williamson Long in Jefferson, Georgia, USA. previous day - next day
Page: December 28
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: December 29
  1970 - Occupational Safety & Health Act signed today 1970 by President Richard M Nixon, to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and occupational fatalities. 2014 - Vermont Yankee shut down today 2014 was an electricity generating nuclear power plan
Page: December 3
1842 - Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards born today 1842 was an industrial and environmental chemist in the United States during the 19th century. She pioneered application of science to the home, and the first to apply chemistry to the study of nutrition.
Page: December 30
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: December 31
1691 - Robert Boyle - died today 1691 - Considered the first modern chemist but with roots in the alchemical tradition 1997 - Quaker Oats settled a lawsuit today 1997 involving the use of child subjects in radioactivity experiments circa 1945-56. previous
Page: December 4
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: December 5
1952 - The Great Smog overwhelmed London today 1952, also referred to as the Big Smoke, December 5 to December 9, 1952. 1933 - The Twenty-first Amendment enacted today 1933 repealing the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution ending U.S. Prohibitio
Page: December 6
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: December 7
2007 - Hebei Spirit oil spill -  On today 2007 the oil tanker Hebei Spirit was hit by a break away crane barge owned by Samsung Heavy Industries resulting a major oil spill in South Korea resulting in ongoing environmental and economic effects. previous d
Page: December 8
1859 - Thomas de Quincey, died today 1859, most famous for writing Confessions of an English Opium Eater. 1953 - "Atoms for Peace" speech delivered today 1953 by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City. previous day
Page: December 9
1742 - Carl Wilhelm Scheele, born today 1742, discovered elements including oxygen, barium, chlorine, and manganese. 1868 - Fritz Haber, born today 1868, received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development of synthetic ammonia. 1921 - Thomas
Page: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP Oil Spill, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, or the Macondo blowout) is a massive ongoing oil spill stemming from a sea floor o
Page: Deltamethrin
Overview Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide that kills insects through dermal contact and digestion. It is applied for a range of commercial crops and recreational uses, and by extension controls a variety of pests. It was first synthesized
Page: demerol
Overview Demerol is the trade name for the man-made meperidine or pithidine. It, in certain parts, is structurally identical to morphine. It has analgesic properties and is often used in place of morphine. It is less effective, but it also is unlikely to
Page: Demeton
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Demeton is an organophosphate pesticide and acaricide and insecticide and is ranked in the top 10% most hazardous chemicals. It is toxic to huma
Page: Demorol
Please Contribute to Toxipedia!.
Page: Dental Fluorosis
Overview Dental fluorosis is a defect of tooth development characterized by generalized white spots, brown stains and pitting of the enamel of the permanent teeth (Figure 1). Fluoride, ingested during the formation and maturation of tooth enamel, interfer
Page: Desastre de Bhopal
Información General El Desastre de Bhopal, ocurrido el 3 de diciembre de 1984 en la región de Bhopal (India), se originó al producirse una fuga de 45 toneladas de isocianato de metilo en una fábrica de pesticidas propiedad de un 51% de la compañía estadou
Page: Desastre del Love Canal
Información General En 1942, una empresa subsidiaria de Oxy, Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corporation, realizó vertidos químicos en la region de Love Canal, aunque otras compañías y los militares de los E.E.U.U. la habían utilizado como vertedero químico
Page: Desert death adder
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Acanthophis pyrrhus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Western and
Page: Desodorizadores
  Visão geral Desodorizadores são produtos comumente vendidos, usados em casas e empresas para deixar um odor agradável no ambiente e criar uma atmosfera limpa. Eles são conhecidos por conterem uma série de agentes químicos que servem para neutralizar odo
Page: Devonshire Colic
  Overview Devonshire Colic is an affliction caused by lead poisoning that affected the people of Devonshire, England throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The infirmity was the result of the use of lead in the production of the apple cider as the press
Page: Devra Davis
Devra Lee Davis, Ph.D., MPH Author of the widely acclaimed book, When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the Battle Against Pollution (Devra's web site) (Basic Books, 2002), which won a National Book Award (the first book on the en
Page: Diacetyl
Overview Diacetyl is a yellow to green liquid or powder that is found in a variety of foods and beverages. It contributes to beer and wine and has a slick or slippery texture at low levels and a butterscotch flavor at higher levels. It is a natural by-pro
Page: Dian Fossey
Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932 – December 26, 1985) was an American zoologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups over a period of 18 years. She studied them daily in the mountain forests of Rwanda, initially encouraged to work there by famo
Page: Dianne Dickeman
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Dianne Dickeman Dianne Dickeman Dianne Dickeman is a painter who lives and works in Seattle. She has been making art and exhibiting her work more than 20 years. She has had residencies at the Skowhegan School f
Page: Diapers
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The diaper, or nappy, has changed radically since its development in England in the 1590s. Washable diapers are usually made of cotton or other fibers, natural or synthetic, that can
Page: Diazinon
Lead Editor: Elliott Thoreby Lead Author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Diazinon, first synthesized in 1953, is a nonsystemic organophosphate insecticide used to control cockroaches, silverfish, ants, and fleas in non-food buildings (#ABCbirds.org). It is al
Page: Dibromochloropropane
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert This article has been tagged for development. Overview Dibromochloropropane, also known as DBCP, is a nematicide Pesticide that was widely used agriculturally from 1955-1977 in the United States
Page: Dicamba
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Dicamba is a benzoic acid herbicide. It was registered with the EPA in 1967 (#NPIC). Dicamba mimics the plant hormone auxin, causing uncontrolled growth which eventually kills plants. It
Page: Dichloroacetic Acid
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dichloroacetic Acid (DCA), also known as dichloroethanoic acid, is an analogue of acetic acid in which two of the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have been replaced by Chlori
Page: Dichlorprop-p
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Dichlorprop is a chlorophenoxy class herbicide. It is also known as 2,4-DP because of its chemical similarities to 2,4-D. It was first registered with the EPA in the 1960s. 2,4-DP is com
Page: Dieldrin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dieldrin is an organochlorine insecticide that is structurally very similar to Aldrin. Aldrin quickly breaks down into dieldrin once it enters the atmosphere. Dieldrin was used in the
Page: Dietary Supplement Act
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 199410 (DSHEA) as a product t
Page: Dietary Supplements
The National Library of Medicine Dietary Supplements Labels Database now includes several interface improvements, more products, and an auto-complete (search) feature. The Dietary Supplements Labels Database includes information from the labels of over 3,
Page: Dietary Supplements - Who's in Charge
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Diethanolamine (DEA)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert An ingredient found in many shampoos and other personal care products appears to interfere with normal brain development in baby mice when applied to the skin of pregnant mice, University of N
Page: Diethylene Glycol
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This article is tagged for development. Overview Diethylene Glycol is a high volume solvent most commonly used as a coolant, though it serves numerous other industrial purposes. It has been re
Page: Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and interest in diethylstilbestrol (DES). Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new History and EDCs webpages created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to le
Page: Dimercaprol
Please contribute.
Page: Dimethoate
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Dimethoate Use: insecticide Source: synthetic chemistry Recommended daily intake: none Absorption: dermal, inhalation Sensitive individuals: workers
Page: dimethylmercury
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) is an organomercury compound. This colorless liquid is one of the strongest known neurotoxins. References Dimethylmercury - wikipedia
Page: Dimethylsulfide
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methylthiomethane is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2S. Dimethyl sulfide is a water-insoluble flammable liquid that boils at 37 °C (99 °F) an
Page: Dine Nation Arsenic Risk Assessment
Arsenic Websites: NRDC:  http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/qarsenic.asp EPA:  http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic/index.html Toxmetal: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/research/projects/Arsenic.html A Small Dose of...: [http://www.asmalldoseof.org/tox
Page: Dinoseb
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Dinoseb is a member of the dinitrophenal Pesticides used extensively in central California. Its use was canceled in the United States in 1986. C
Page: Dioscorides
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Pedanius Dioscorides was an ancient Greek physician, pharmacologist, and botanist who was famous for writing his five volume work De Materia Medica. In the 2nd century BCE, Dioscoride
Page: Dioscórides (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão geral Dioscórides foi um médico grego, farmacologista e botânico famoso por escrever sua obra de cinco volumes De Materia Medica. No segundo século A.C., Dioscórides cravou "o chumbo faz perder a
Page: Dioxin
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in dioxins. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Dioxins webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about dioxins
Page: dioxina
coming soon...
Page: Dipentene
Overview Dipentene is a terpene liquid, a class of hyrdocarbons produced by plants, that is colorless with a lemon-like odor. It is most commonly used as a solvent in a variety of products. It is a high production volume chemical with US annual production
Page: Diquat Dibromide
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Diquat dibromide is a nonselective, fast-acting desiccant herbicide, which damages only the parts of a plant to which it is applied. It is used agriculturally and also has a number of ou
Page: Discussion Forum
Overview This is our brand new discussion forum, that allows anyone from anywhere in the world to join the conversation about how to facilitate a healthier planet. Anyone is welcome to come in and join a #Current Discussion Topic merely by: 1. Registering
Page: Diseases and Disorders
Topic Pages on Specific Diseases and Disorders Amnesiac Shellfish Poison Arsenic Poisoning Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Black Death Botulism Brown Lung Disease Cancer  Cholera Cirrhosis Dental Fluorosis Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (
Page: DISPERSIT SPC 1000
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light
Uses Paint products Auto maintenance and cleaning products (wax, polish, paint, gloss) Home care protective coating Aerosol spray Charcoal Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to huma
Page: Distillates, petroleum, hydrotreated light
Overview Petroleum distillates are made from crude oil. Uses Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light is found in the following products: Oil Dispersants Pesticides Charcoal Air Freshener Deodorizer Adhesive Car Wax Car Tire Protectant Car Fuel System
Page: Disulfoton
 Lead Editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead Author: Kaitlin Mallory Managing Group: Chemicals Group Just the facts Physical Information Name: Disulfoton Use: pesticide Source: synthetic chemistry Recommended daily intake: NONE Absorption: ingestion and inhalatio
Page: DNA
Please Contribute to Toxipedia!.
Page: Doing No Harm Is Not Doing Our Best
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Dolly Cloned Sheep
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dolly (July 5, 1996 - February 14, 2003) was a female domestic sheep remarkable in being the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfe
Page: Domoic Acid
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert   Overview Domoic Acid is a naturally occurring excitatory neurotoxic amino acid produced by microscopic algae, specifically the diatom species Pseudo-nitzschia, that causes Amnesic Shellfis
Page: Domoic Acid Poisoning in California
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Overview #References   Overview Sea Lions, whales, dolphins and other marine animals are being affected by Domoic Acid along the California coast from Monterey Bay around San Francis
Page: Donate
Toxipedia is a project of the The Institute of Neurotoxicology and Neurological Disorders (INND) (INND), a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization supported by communities concerned about public health. Please contact the director, Steven Gilbert (sgilbert@toxiped
Page: Donations
Please donate! The Food Ingredient and Health Research Institute filed its Articles of Incorporation with the Secretary of State (SOS) in California on Friday, October 15, 2010.   This is the date the Articles of Incorporation were received by SOS represe
Page: Donations welcome!
http://foodingredient.info/benefitsofmembership/joinus.html Contributions to the Food Ingredient and Health Research Institute are tax deductible as we are exempt from Federal income tax under section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  Please clic
Page: Donora smog
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The 1948 Donora smog was a historic air inversion resulting in a wall of smog that killed 20 people and sickened 7,000 more in Donora, Pennsylvania, a mill town on the Monongahela Riv
Page: Drug Poisoning and Overdose
Author: Aleksandra Buha Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Overview Drug poisoning can result from an overdose of either prescribed drugs or drugs that are bought over the counter, or it can be caused by drug abuse or drug interaction. The adverse effects var
Page: Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
Acetaminophen Anthracyclines Aspirin Benzodiazepines Caffeine Calicheamicin Cocaine Codeine Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Drug Poisoning and Overdose Elixir Sulfanilamide Excedrin fen-phen Heroin Hormonal Contraception Isotretinoin LSD Marijuana Morphine Nicot
Page: Duwamish Contamination Risk Assessment
Authors: Kevin Do and Tiana Nizamic Summary History The Duwamish River has played a key role in the industrial history of the Seattle area.  Serving as a site for many industrial processes, its flow helps aid in transportation and power for many companies

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Page: E-waste Risk Assessment
 Nick Ling & Danica Hill Presentation Powerpoint:E-waste Risk Assessment.ppt A little background E-wasting can generally be explained as the recycling and breaking down of all sorts of electronic devices. These electronic devices contain circuit boards, s
Page: E-waste: A Badly Managed Hazard
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Early Modern
Period Overview The people and events below are in alphabetical order. For a chronological list please see the Toxicology Timeline. The Early Modern Period spans the time from the Renaissance, beginning around the 14th century, to the Industrial Revolutio
Page: Earth Charter
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental values and principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. Created by a global consulta
Page: Earth Day
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Gaylord Nelson, a United States Senator from Wisconsin, called for an environmental teach-in called Earth Day to be held on April 22, 1970. Over 20 million people participated that
Page: Earthquake safety
EXTRACT FROM DOUG COPP'S ARTICLE ON THE: 'TRIANGLE OF LIFE' My name is Doug Copp. I am the Rescue Chief and Disaster Manager of the American Rescue Team International (ARTI), the world's most experienced rescue team. The information in this article will s
Page: East African Gaboon viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bitis gabonica Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Coagulants, haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Central and eas
Page: Eastern bandy-bandy
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Vermicella annulata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Eastern Australia (O'Shea, 2
Page: Eastern brownsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Pseudonaja textilis Physical information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Pre- and Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geogr
Page: Eastern coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Micrurus fulvius Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsnyaptic neurotoxin and Myotoxins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom:
Page: Eastern diamondback rattlesnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Crotalus adamanteus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Pro- and anticoagulants, Haemorrhagins and myotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/sympt
Page: Eastern green mamba
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Dendroaspis angusticeps Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Kenya to Mozambique,
Page: Eastern small-eyed snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Rhinoplocephalus nigrescens Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Eastern Australia,
Page: Eastern tigersnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: Eben Byers
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Eben McBurney Byers (April 12, 1880 – March 31, 1932) was a wealthy American socialite, athlete, and industrialist. He won the 1906 U.S. Amateur in golf. He earned notoriety in the ea
Page: Ebers Papyrus
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Ebers Papyrus (approximately 1500 BCE), one of the two oldest maintained medical documents, preserved for us most extensive record of Egyptian medical history. In it, the Egyptian
Page: Ebers Papyrus SP
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Ebers Papyrus (approximately 1500 BCE), one of the two oldest maintained medical documents, preserved for us most extensive record of Egyptian medical history. In it, the Egyptian
Page: Ecological Effects
The growing concerns surrounding the residual effects of pesticide use extend to concerns related to the environment and natural systems. Pesticides and fertilizers perform the same whether they are on farm land or in a stream or forest, decreasing popula
Page: Ecological Impact of Walls
    Ecological Impact of Walls Introduction to Ecological Impacts Dams As Walls       Retaining walls, large and small, are common in home yards, beaches, and many other locations. The basements of our homes are a form of retaining wall used to control th
Page: Economics of Pesticide Usage
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This is part of the op-ed portion of Toxipedia where experts contribute their thoughts about environmental and public health concerns. In the United States, $10 billion are spent on Pesticides
Page: Edad Antigua
Información General El período de la Antigüedad, a menudo referido como Historia Antigua, cubre el período desde la fundación de la civilización moderna en Mesopotamia, alrededor de 3500 aC, hasta el inicio de la Edad Media. Entre los eventos principales
Page: Edad Contemporánea
Información General La Edad Contemporánea se extiende desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial hasta el presente.  Eventos Las figuras históricas abajo están en orden alfabético. Para obtener una lista cronológica, por favor vea el Toxicology Timeline. A Civil Act
Page: Edad Media
Información General Las figuras históricas abajo están en orden alfabético. Para obtener una lista cronológica, por favor vea el Toxicology Timeline. La Edad Media, también conocido como Medievo o Medioevo, más o menos se refiere al tiempo entre la caída
Page: Edad Moderna Anterior
Información General La Edad Moderna abarca el tiempo desde el Renacimiento, que comenzó alrededor del siglo 14, con la Revolución Industrial, que comenzó en el siglo 18 en algunas partes del mundo. Este fue un gran momento de la exploración y el descubrim
Page: Edad Moderna Posterior
Información General La Edad Moderna se refiere generalmente como el periodo de la Revolución Industrial del siglo 18 hasta el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Eventos Las personas y los acontecimientos abajo están en orden alfabético. Para obtener una
Page: Edward Jukes & F. Bush
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert In 1822 Edward Jukes and F. Bush simultaneously invented gastric lavage. They both experimented with the removal of Opium and other poisons from the stomach using plastic tubing and a syring
Page: Edward Palmer Thompson
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Edward Palmer Thompson (February 3, 1924 - August 28, 1993), was an English historian, socialist and peace campaigner. He is probably best known today for his historical work on the B
Page: Effects of Pesticides on Human Health
Introduction Pesticides are designed to kill and because their mode of action is not specific to one species, they often kill or harm organisms other than pests, including humans. The World Health Organization estimates that there are 3 million cases of p
Page: Egyptian cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja haje Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxin Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Northern Africa and Ar
Page: EHN news feed
Environmental & Human Health News Review TXP-1 Environmental Health News - General News Breaking stories Scientific studies Environmental Health News - Toxicology News Breaking stories Scientific studies Subject News Caffeine:News Caffeine:Scientific stud
Page: El Cólico Endémico de Devonshire
Información General El cólico de Devonshire fue una enfermedad causada por envenenamiento de plomo que afectó al pueblo de Devonshire, Inglaterra a lo largo de los siglos 17 y 18. La enfermedad era el resultado de la utilización de plomo en la producción
Page: El desastre del túnel de Hawk’s Nest
Información General El desastre del túnel de Hawks Nest en Virginia Occidental tuvo lugar entre 1927 y 1932 en la construcción de un túnel dirigida por Union Carbide. Durante su construcción se encontró un yacimiento del mineral sílice y se encargó a los
Page: Electron
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Page: Electronic Cigarettes, A Benefit or a Risk?
Author:   Elizabeth Swallow Contributed to Toxipedia as part of the University Partnerships Program. Overview        A decade after the invention of the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and their introduction to global markets, the popularity of e-cigar
Page: Electronic Waste (E-Waste)
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in electronic waste. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Built Environment webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to lea
Page: Elegant seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Hydrophis elegans Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins, postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Au
Page: Elijah Craig
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Elijah Craig (1738/1743 – May 18, 1808) was a Baptist preacher in Virginia, who became an educator and capitalist entrepreneur.  On June 14, 1789, Craig founded a distillery. This las
Page: Elinor Kriegsmann
Elinor Kriegsmann retired from the profession of speech/language pathology several years ago. Her passion was to help children with complex speech and language disorders by teaching therapists and developing programs. Elinor was a clinical instructor at t
Page: Elixir Sulfanilamide
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Aside from the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Harrison Act of 1914 banning the sale of some narcotic drugs, there was no federal regulatory control insuring the safety of new
Page: Ellen Swallow Richards
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   — Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (December 3, 1842 – March 30, 1911) was an industrial and environmental chemist in the United States during the 19th century. Her pioneering work
Page: Elliott Thoreby
An intern now in Seattle, Elliott is currently at the University of Washington. He started out as a Biology major but has switched to Health Information Management and  is interested in scientific writing and research. Elliott enjoys cooking and follows b
Page: Elíxir Sulfanilamida
Información General El elíxir sulfanilamida fue un preparado del medicamento Sulfamida realizado de forma inadecuada, que causó intoxicación masiva en los Estados Unidos en 1937 y ocasionó la muerte de más de cien personas. El clamor público provocado por
Page: Email Toxipedia
Have a question? Email Toxipedia at questions@toxipedia.org
Page: Emerald Tablet
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview —Also called The Secret of Hermes – by Hermes Trismegistus ("Hermes the Thrice-Greatest") 172 BCE —A text purporting to reveal the secret of the primordial substance and its transmuta
Page: Emil Fischer
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Emil Fischer (October 9, 1852 - July 15, 1919), was a Nobel Prize winning German chemist who was the first to isolate Caffeine in 1895 from plant extracts, the stimulant of choice. In
Page: Emile Zola
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Émile François Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributo
Page: Emilie W. Clemmens
Emilie W. Clemmens, PhD Review TXP-1 A scientist with backgrounds in bioengineering and human physiology, Emilie Clemmens is also a published ethicist and currently serves as a Research Fellow for the Women's Bioethics Project, an organization dedicated t
Page: Emphysema
Please contribute.
Page: Endocrine Disruptors
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in endocrine disruptors. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new EDCs webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more a
Page: Endosulfan
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Kaitlin Mallory Katarina Lah Overview Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide. This colorless solid has emerged as a highly controversial agrichemical due to its acute toxicity, endocrine effects, and potent
Page: Endrin
Overview Endrin is an organochlorine insecticide and rodenticide most commonly used on cotton, maize, and sugarcane. Endrin, a white, odorless substance, is lethal if ingested in large quantities, and has been outlawed in the United States since 1986 (#EP
Page: Energy Star
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Energy Star is a joint program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The program promotes energy efficiency in the home and at businesses
Page: Engydontium sp.
PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  keratitis (1,2), cerebritis (1,2), endocarditis (1,655) IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA) Small white colonies (25 mm in 8-10days), narrow hyphae, apically dichotomous, conidiogenous cells in whorls of 1
Page: Eniwetok
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion. It was detonated on November
Page: Enlaces externos
Recursos Externos La Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos (EPA) Asociacion LatinoAmericana de Toxicologia          
Page: Enrico Fermi
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 - November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to th
Page: ENV H 472-572 A - Environmental Risk
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND SOCIETY Take Home Final Syllabus - Class assignments - Editorial Presentation - Paper Topic Resources - books, articles, web sites Interesting talks Class 1 - January 5 - Tuesday - Gilbert Class intro - wiki technology Overview of r
Page: Envenenamiento por mercurio - Irak 1971
Información General During the winter of 1971-1972, pink-colored seed grain coated with a Mercury fungicide was ground into bread and tragically consumed by Iraqis tragically exposing over 40,000 people of all ages.  Toxicological Perspective Iraq was roc
Page: ENVH 516 - Env & Occ Tox
Class Lectures and Readings General Tox Lecture Power Point 7 mgb Precautionary Principle pdf LDDI Scientific Consensus Statement pdf LDDI Policy statement pdf Lead Lecture Power Point 2.5 mgb Lead 10 to 2 paper pdf Mercury Lecture Power Point 2.2 mgb Ars
Page: Environmental & Human Health News
News Feeds Environmental Health News Daily Toxicology News Tox News by Topic Toxicology News (Topix) Grist Magazine Environmental Research Foundation - Rachel's News General News from Environmental Health News Breaking stories Scientific studies Toxicolog
Page: Environmental Economics and True Costs
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert December 17, 2007 Economic/Environomental Costs Differ in the Long Run From the Short Run What works in the short run often times costs society infinitely more in the long run. This is true wi
Page: Environmental Fate and Distribution
While significant research has looked at the impacts of pesticides on the environment, another research focus is examining how long these chemicals remain in the environment, perpetuating their negative effects. Often held in soils, particular pesticides
Page: Environmental Health
*Definitions "If you want to learn about the health of a population, look at the air they breath, the water they drink, and the places where they live." Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, in the Fifth Century BC. Definitions - Environmental Health - (ho
Page: Environmental Health Effects of Marijuana Cultivation
Editor Maria M. Williams Author Maria M. Williams Introduction to Marijuana Marijuana is an annual, dioecious (having separate male and female plants), flowering herb in the Cannabaceae family. There are three species of Cannabis: sativa, indica, and rude
Page: Environmental Justice, or Rather Injustice
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward  A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental hea
Page: Environmental Protection Agency
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was officially formed December 2, 1970 as a result of a law passed by the Nixon administration. The result was a defined branch of the f
Page: Environmental Protection Agency Spanish
  la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos...coming soon   La misión de la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos es la de proteger la salud de los humanos y la del medio ambiente. Desde 1970, la EPA ha estado trabajando por un ambi
Page: ephedra
Ephedra Overview Ephedra, from the plant Ephedra sinica, has been used as a herbal remedy in traditional Chinese medicine for 5,000 years for the treatment of asthma and hay fever, as well as for the common cold. Known in Chinese as ma huang, ephedra is a
Page: Ephedra Risk Assessment
Alyssa Vivas & Ashley Barlond Presentation: Ephedra PowerPoint Editorials & Letters: Barlond Ephedra Letter to Representative Barlond Ephedra Editorial Alyssa Vivas-Ephedra Editorial.pdf Alyssa Vivas-Ephedra Letter.pdf Individual Write-up: Summary: Ephedr
Page: Ephedrine Ban
Toxicological Perspective The FDA instituted a ban on ephedrine alkaloids in 2004. The ban prohibited the marketing of ephedrine containing alkaloids in dietary supplements and other substances not intended for prescribed medicinal use. The Federal Distri
Page: Epicoccum sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (274,282,656-661) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Antibiotics : Epicorazine A & B (662-665), Flavipin (665). PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  No cases of infection have been reported in humans or animals. IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXT
Page: Epigenetic mechanisms in chemical toxicology
Coming soon . . .
Page: Epigenetics
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in epigenetics. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Gene-Environment webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn mor
Page: Epigenetics: The Genes but More
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: EPN
[This article has been tagged for development.] Lead Editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead Author: Kaitlin Mallory Just the facts Physical Information Name: EPN Use: insecticide Source: Recommended daily intake: none Absorption: inhalation, dermal contact, inges
Page: Equipe de tradução para a língua portuguesa
{authors} Authors: Prof. Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Tradução do quadro "Marcos Históricos da Toxicologia" (Milestones of Toxicology) A primeira fase da tradução da Toxipedia para a língua portuguesa foi realizada em uma "Força-Tarefa" pelo seguinte
Page: Ergortismo
Información General El ergotismo, denominado en el uso coloquial como "fiebre de San Antonio", "fuego de San Antonio" o "fuego del infierno", es una enfermedad causada por la ingesta de alimentos contaminados por micotoxinas (toxinas producidas por hongos
Page: Ergot
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ergot Outbreak (994 C.E.) The ergot fungus, when consumed, causes Gangrene. Over 40,000 people died from Gangrene when they consumed wheat and rye contaminated with it, in the Aquitai
Page: Ergot and Saint Anthony's Fire
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Ergotismo
Coming soon . . .
Page: Erin Brockovich
Page: Español
Bienvenidos a Toxipedia Toxipedia es una pequena organizacion sin animo de lucro! Este sitio es algo especial, es como una biblioteca o un parque publico, un templo para la mente, un lugar al cual todos podemos acudir cuando queremos pensar o aprender. Nu
Page: Ester Lovsin Barle
  Ester Lovsin Barle   Dr. Ester Lovsin Barle is Head of Health Hazard Assessment Center of Excellence in Novartis, where she is responsible for occupational toxicology and patient safety related process in support of manufacturing and establishing scient
Page: Estrogens
Natural steroid hormones as well as synthetic sex steroids are very potent endocrine-disrupting compounds. Gonadal Steroids Estrogens, androgens, and progestins are produced in male and female organisms as well, but in different amounts. Steroid hormones
Page: Estuary
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Background Structure Retrieved from Lumcon An estuary is a "partly enclosed body of water" in which river water (fresh water) mixes with ocean water (salt water) (#Encyclopedia Britannica On
Page: Ethanol, 2 - (2 - butoxyethoxy) -
Overview Uses Paint products Home cleaning products Hair coloring products Automotive products Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as a suspected neurotoxin, kidney toxin, cardiovascular/blood toxin, and reproductive toxin (Ha
Page: Ethanol, 2,2',2''- nitrilotris -
Overview Uses New and discontinued cleaning products Personal care creams, gels, sprays Pet sprays Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Exposure has been associated with asthma (haz-map) Burns can result from prolonged or repeated exp
Page: Ethanol, 2,2'- iminobis -
Overview Uses Lubricants for textile production Agricultural chemicals Cosmetics Pharmaceuticals Automotive cleaning products Soaps Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Exposure associated with asthma (Haz-map) Listed as a kidney toxi
Page: Ethanol, 2- amino -
Overview Uses Dry cleaning detergent Lotions and creams Machining fluid used in automobile manufacturing Home cleaning products Hair coloring product Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Exposure is associated with asthma (haz-map) Should be treated
Page: Ethanol, 2-butoxy-
Overview Uses Aerosol paints, stains and paint products Automotive cleaning products Home cleaning products Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as a possible carcinogen (HSDB) While 2-Butoxyethanol is not registered as a carci
Page: Ethical Considerations
Section Editor: Maria M. Williams Theoretically, ethics is concerned with moral principles and values. Practically, these principles and values inform a conceptual framework for decision making. Ethically responsible decisions, at individual and group lev
Page: Ethical Economics
Resources Seven Principles of Life-Enhancing Economics: article by Nancy Myers published in The Networker (Vol. 9 No. 6), a newsletter of the Science and Environmental Health Network. Science and Environmental Health Network: Ethical Economics. Gund Insti
Page: Ethical Issues - Environmental Justice
Definitions "Environmental justice is achieved when everyone, regardless of race, culture, or income, enjoys the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards and equal access to the decision-making process to have a healthy environment
Page: Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Toxicology
Author: Steven G. Gilbert Also see our section on Ethical Considerations, covering topics such as environmental justice, ethical economics, the global e-waste trade, pesticide use in developing nations, and more! Introduction Rapid advances in science and
Page: Ethics of Epiprecaution
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Doing no harm is not doing your best "Children have a right to an environment that ensures that they have the best opportunity to reach and maintain their full genetic potential." Gil
Page: Ethinylestradiol
Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an orally bio-active estrogen used in almost all modern formulations of combined oral contraceptive pills and is one of the most commonly used medications. Ethinylestradiol was the first orally active synthetic steroidal estrogen
Page: Ethiofencarb
[This article has been tagged for development.] Lead Editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead Author: Kaitlin Mallory Just the facts Physical Information Name: Ethiofencarb Use: insecticide Source: Recommended daily intake: none Absorption: Sensitive individuals: a
Page: Ethion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Ethion is an organophosphate insecticide that is banned in numerous countries worldwide, though not such notable countries as Canada an
Page: Ethoprop
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Ethoprop is a restricted and highly toxic organophosphate insecticide and nematacide that is banned in most countries but still used in
Page: Ethoxylated dodecanol
Overview Uses Hair coloring products Personal cleaning products Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as moderately toxic (HSDB) Contact with skin may cause irritation (HSDB) Harmful to dermal layer but not epidermal Eye and res
Page: Ethyl Acetate
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ethyl Acetate is a colorless liquid with a smell similar to glue or nail polish that is used as an industrial solvent.   Just the facts Physical Information Name: Ethyl Acetate Synony
Page: Ethyl Alcohol
  Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in ethyl alcohol. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Alcohol webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn more about
Page: Ethylbenzene
Overview Ethylbenzene is an organic compound most commonly used in the production of plastics. It is a clear liquid with an irritating odor similar to gasoline. Uses Ethylbenzene is found in the following products: Paints (Arts and Craft and Interior/Exte
Page: Ethylene Dibromide
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ethylene Dibromide is a naturally occurring (small amounts found in oceans) colorless liquid used in certain reactions. It used to be a common Pesticide but its use in this context was
Page: Ethylene Oxide (EtO)
This page is from the P2RIC's SustainUpdates section from the University of Nebraska-Omaha Author: Chad Wetzel Overview Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is a commonly used biocide both in the healthcare and food industry.   It is a universally applicable sterilizer u
Page: Ethylmercury
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory facts: General facts: Environmental: Recommend
Page: Eugen Baumann
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Eugen Baumann (December 12, 1846 - November 3, 1896) was a German chemist. He was one of the first people to create polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and, together with Carl Schotten, he disc
Page: Eurasia
Vipers Northern cross adder (Vipera berus) Orsini's meadow viper (Vipera ursini) European Nose-horned vipers European sand viper (Vipera ammodytes) Lataste's viper (Vipera latastei) Middle Eastern mountain vipers Armenian rock viper (Vipera raddei) Ottoma
Page: European sand viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Vipera ammodytes Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Presynaptic neurotoxins, Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptom
Page: EUROTOX 2011
EUROTOX 2011 - Overview The 47th Congress of the European Societies of Toxicology was held at the Palais des Congrès (Porte Maillot, Paris, France) from the 28th to the 31st August 2011. There were 1481 attendees from over 50 countries, and over 200 stude
Page: Evil Wind
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview In geology, a mazuku is a pocket of oxygen-poor air that can be lethal to any human or animal life inside. The term comes from Swahili and means "evil wind." Mazukus are created when
Page: Examples of Proposed Courses
Courses Response to War and Conflict by Sahera R Bleibleh ARCH MURP PhD and Steven Gilbert, PhD Both Sides of the Fence: The West Bank Security Wall by Cari Ladd, M.Ed. Response to War and Conflict by Sahera R Bleibleh ARCH MURP PhD and Steven Gilbert, Ph
Page: examples of walls throughout history
Walls Guardian Are you hemmed in by a separation wall or security fence? - see Guardian "Are you fenced in? Is there a security wall that stops you getting from A to B? The Guardian is launching a major project to report on the growing number of walls and
Page: Excedrin
Overview Excedrin is an over-the-counter headache pain reliever, typically in the form of tablets or caplets. It contains acetaminophen, Aspirin, and caffeine. In June of 1986, Seattle area woman Stella Nickell was sentenced to 99 years in prison for kill
Page: Exophiala sp.
MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Antibiotic: Exophilin A (689) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Agent of phaeohyphomycosis (1,2): nail (690), (sub)cutanous (1,2,691-694), eye (1,122, 695-698), sinus (1), pulmonary (699-701), cerebral (1,2,702,703) infections, otitis (704), pe
Page: Expand and Deepen Member Engagement
The Issue The Society is committed to providing the most effective and critical career resources to promote the professional advancement of each and every member, across all career stages. If members believe that they benefit directly from superior servic
Page: Export of Toxic Pesticides from Industrialized to Developing Nations
Quick Facts Banned Pesticides Being Sold in Developing Countries "There are many cases where highly hazardous pesticides, which are not permitted for use in industrialized countries, are exported to developing countries. For a pesticide to be banned, it h
Page: Exposure Limits
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Rick Gleason Overview The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has their Threshold Limit Values (TLV's). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has their
Page: Exserohilum sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (77,283,285,286) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Agent of subcutaneous and deep mycosis (1,2,713-720), causing fungal sinusitis (1,2,290,720-722), disseminated infection (1,723).  IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (P
Page: Exstrophy Overview
Introduction As a group, the exstrophy anomalies range in severity from distal epispadias to cloacal exstrophy. These anomalies share consistent anatomic features due to the deformation that caused them. This group of congenital anomalies includes: • Clas
Page: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview  On March 24, 1989 the oil tanker Exxon Valdez hit Bligh Reef spilling millions of gallons of oil into the enclosed Prince William Sound. Accident On March 24th, 1989, the oil tanke
Page: Eyelash palm-pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Bothrichis schlegelii Physical information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geogra

F

Page: False coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Erythrolamprus aesculapii Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: unknown, but mildly venomous Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom:
Page: False horned viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Pseudocerastes persicus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Presynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Pakistan
Page: FDA Food Advisory Hearing Petition
March 22, 2011 Attn: Carolyn Jeletic FDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS 024), 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740 RE: Link Between Consumption of Synthetic Color Additives in Food and Adverse Effects on Behavior             
Page: Fea's viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Azemiops feae Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Possible Anticoagulants, neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Vietn
Page: Featured Links
Featured Links The Pump Handle - overview The Angry Toxicologist - overview Defending Science Desmogblog Envirowonk - Environmental Politics Global Health Policy Global Health Report Grist Mill - The blog of the magazine Grist. Hazards Recognized Health B
Page: February 1
1923 - Leaded gasoline was placed on sale today 1923 in selected markets in the U.S. previous day - next day
Page: February 10
  1912 - Joseph Lister, died today 1912 was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.  Successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operati
Page: February 11
1981 -  Radioactive coolant leaked today 1981 100,000 gallons (380 m³) radioactive coolant into the containment building of TVA Sequoyah 1 Nuclear Plant in Tennessee, contaminating 8 workers. previous day - next day
Page: February 12
1777 - Bernard Courtois, was born today 1777, a French chemist who discovered Iodine in 1811 and later isolated morphine. 1809 - Charles Robert Darwin born today 1809 was an English naturalist and geologist, known for his contributions to the science of e
Page: February 13
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: February 14
1949 - The Asbestos Strike began today 1949 in Canada. The strike marked the beginning of the Quiet Revolution in Quebec. 1961 - Lawrencium today 1961 was first synthesized at the University of California. 1989 - Union Carbide agreed today 1989 to pay $47
Page: February 15
399 BC - The philosopher Socrates was sentenced to death today 399 BC, convicted of corrupting the youth and inventing new deities, he was sentenced to die by drinking hemlock.. 2000 - The Indian Point II nuclear power plant today 2000 in New York State v
Page: February 16
1754 - Richard Mead died today 1754 an English physician who wrote A Mechanical Account of Poisons in Several Essays, the first English-language book dedicated to poisonous animals and plants. 1933 - The Blaine Act today 1933 ended U.S. Prohibition in the
Page: February 17
2003 - Steven Scott Bechler, died today 2003 a Major League baseball pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles in 2002, died at the beginning of spring training in 2003 after using the herbal supplement ephedra. previous day - next day
Page: February 18
1535 - Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim died today 1535 was a German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist. 1967 - J. Robert Oppenheimer died today 1967 was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as th
Page: February 19
1881 - Kansas today 1881 became the first U.S. state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages. 1859 - Svante August Arrhenius born today 1859, Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, illustrate the application of the meth
Page: February 2
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: February 20
1841 - Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner, died today 1841, a German pharmacist who discovered Morphine in 1805. previous day - next day
Page: February 21
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: February 22
1680 - Catherine Deshayes Monvoisin (La Voisin) burned at the stake today 1680, accused sorcerer and convicted poisoner in France. 1983 - The Environmental Protection Agency announced today 1983 its intent to buy out and evacuate the Dioxin-contaminated c
Page: February 23
1954 - Viktor Yushchenko born today 1954 is a former President of Ukraine, assassination attempt in August 2004, ingested hazardous amounts of TCDD: the most potent dioxin 1941 - Plutonium today 1941 was first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg
Page: February 24
No event has been entered. If you know of one, please feel free to add it! previous day - next day
Page: February 25
1971 - The first unit of the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, went online today 1971 the first commercial Nuclear Power station in Canada. 1999 - Glenn Theodore Seaborg died today 1999, won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "discoveries in the ch
Page: February 26
1989 - CBS-TV's 60 Minutes aired today 1989 the exposé "A is for Apple," which addressed the use of the pesticide alar on apples. 2010 - The University of Delhi, India, auctioned today 2010 a Gammacell 220 research irradiator containing cobalt-60 to a scr
Page: February 27
1706 - John Evelyn died today 1706 was an English writer, gardener and diarist.  Noted for writing one of the first books on air pollution - Fumifugium 1869 - Alice Hamilton, MD, born today 1869 founder of occupational medicine and the first female facult
Page: February 28
1901 - Linus Carl Pauling born today 1901, an American chemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists in any field of the 20th century. previous day - nex
Page: February 29
yyyy - something toxic must have happend - but what - help us fill this in!! next day
Page: February 3
1924 - Edward Palmer Thompson, born today 1924, an English historian, socialist, and peace campaigner. 1936 - Joseph Lawrence Sax born today 1936 an environmental law professor, known for developing the public trust doctrine. previous day - next day
Page: February 4
1862 - Bacardi, one of the world's largest spirits companies, was founded  today 1862 as a small distillery in Santiago de Cuba in eastern Cuba. 1936 - Radium E. today 1936 became the first radioactive element to be made synthetically. previous day - next
Page: February 5
1958 - A B-47 bomber today 1958 dropped a 7,000-pound nuclear bomb (Mark 15) into the waters off Tybee Island, Georgia, USA, after it collided with another US Air Force jet. previous day - next day
Page: February 6
1804 - Joseph Priestley, died today 1804, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state. previous day - next day
Page: February 7
2010 - The Kleen Energy Systems power station in Middletown, Connecticut, exploded today 2010, killing six, injuring 50. previous day - next day
Page: February 8
1928 - The Geneva Protocol took effect today 1928, The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. Spanish Version Here. previous day - next day
Page: February 9
- 1640 - Murad IV Ghazi the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640 died, banned alcohol, tobacco, and coffee in Constantinople. He ordered execution for breaking this ban. previous day - next day
Page: February Newsletter
A Toxipedia Update   -   February 2009 Featured Quote "A sensible guide would surely be to reduce exposure to hazard whenever possible, to accept substantial hazard only for great benefit, minor hazard for modest benefit, and no hazard at all when the ben
Page: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) was passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmeti
Page: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert In the United States, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) was passed in 1947 and allowed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to regulate appropriate labeling of pesticides. Later the U.S. Food and
Page: Felice Fontana
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Felice Fontana (April 15, 1730 - March 10, 1805), was an Italian physicist who discovered the water gas shift reaction in 1780. He is also credited with launching modern toxicology an
Page: Felice Fontana (Spanish)
Información General Felice Fontana (15 de Abril, 1730 - 10 de Marzo, 1805), Fue un físico italiano que descubrió la reacción de desplazamiento del gas de agua en 1780. También le acreditan con el lanzamiento de la toxicología moderna y la investigación de
Page: Fen-phen
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Fen-phen was a drug combination of fenfluramine/phentermine (see figure) an anti-obesity treatment that utilized two anorectics. Fenfluramine was marketed by American Home Products
Page: Fenbutatin Oxide
Authors: Allison Camp Overview                                                                                                                Fenbutatin Oxide is an insecticide that specifically target mites (acaricide).   It is used primary on fruit tree
Page: Fenitrothion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Finitrothion is a contact organophosphate insecticide that has been used since 1959 to control insects on rice, cereals, fruits, vegetables, sto
Page: Fensulfothion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Fensulfothion (O,O-diethyl-O-(4-(methylsulfinyl)) phosphorothioate) is a toxic organophosphate insecticide and nematicide. Contents #Chemical De
Page: Fensulphothion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Debelopment #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and Opinion #Teachin
Page: Fenthion
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Fenthion, formerly called DMTP, is a contact and systemic organothiophosphate insecticide used against many sucking and biting pests (#EXTOXNET).
Page: Fentrothion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Debelopment #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and Opinion #Teachin
Page: Fenvalerate
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Fenvalerate is a non-leaching non-volatile pyrethroid insecticide, similar to Permethrin though much more degradable (#Cornell University). It is
Page: Fernando Remião
Authors: Fernando Remião Overview Fernando Remião is a Professor at Toxicology Department of Faculty of Pharmacy at University of Porto (Portugal). He finished his graduation course in Pharmaceutical Sciences and his PhD in Toxicology in the same Universi
Page: Ferreira da Silva
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview António Joaquim Ferreira da Silva was born Oliveira de Azemeis, July 28, 1853, near the city of Porto, in northern Portugal and died August 23, 1922. During his research and academic
Page: Ferreira da Silva - THR
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview António Joaquim Ferreira da Silva was born Oliveira de Azemeis, July 28, 1853, near the city of Porto, in northern Portugal and died August 23, 1922. During his research and academic
Page: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) describes the range of abnormalities in children born to mothers who consumed alcohol (Ethyl Alcohol) during pregnancy and is a lifelong disability invol
Page: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
see Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).
Page: FIHRI Mission Statement
FIHRI Mission Statement (August 15, 2010) It is the mission of the Food Ingredient and Health Research Institute to: Promote and support research, development and education in the field of food ingredient safety for the purpose of disease prevention; Soli
Page: FIHRI Statement of Purpose
FIHRI Statement of Purpose (August 15, 2010) About the Institute Our belief that every life has equal value is at the core of our work at the institute. We believe that exposure to toxic contaminants through consumption of food and supplements may cause h
Page: Fiji burrowing snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Ogmodon vitianus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Viti Levu, Fiji (O'Shea, 2005)
Page: File Lists
Page: Fipronil
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Fipronil is a phenylpryazole insecticide that was registered for use in 1996 (#NPIC). It is a nervous system disruptor effective on contact or ingestion. Fipronil is often used to treat
Page: First Lightning
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Lightning was the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test. In the west, it was code-named Joe-1, in reference to Joseph Stalin. It was test-exploded on August 29, 1949, at Semipalati
Page: Flame-Retardants
Thank you for visiting Toxipedia and your interest in flame retardants. Toxipedia’s resources have been integrated into the new Flame Retardants webpage created by the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE). Please visit CHE’s website to learn
Page: Flea Dip
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Amanda Justice Chemical Description There are many different Chemicals List and combinations of chemicals in different brands of flea dip. For example, some brands contain rotenone, which is known to be toxic i
Page: Flint water disaster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   The Flint water disaster occurred when drinking water was contaminated in a serious crisis in Flint, Michigan, United States started on April 25, 2014. After Flint changed its water
Page: Flixborough Disaster
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Flixborough disaster was an explosion at a chemical plant close to the village of Flixborough (near Scunthorpe), North Lincolnshire, England, on June 1, 1974. It killed 28 people an
Page: Fluoride
Fluoride is the ionic form of Fluorine. Some common fluoride compounds are hexafluoric acid, sodium fluoride, and calcium fluoride. Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Phuong Lien Nguyen Uses Although fluoride naturally exists a
Page: Fluoride Content in Tea
Introduction Camellia sinensis, the tea plant, produces what can be called "true teas" such as green, black, and oolong (#Parkinson). Accumulation of Fluoride in the tea plant comes from its natural ability to absorb Fluoride from surrounding soil. It is
Page: Fluoride Controversy
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Fluoride is the 13th most naturally abundant mineral on earth. It is naturally present in all water supplies and is heavily mined as well. Though it is present in domestic water sources
Page: Fluoride in Drinking Water
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Fluorine
Overview Flourine is a univalent pale yellow poisonous gas at room temperature that readily forms compounds with most elements. It is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all elements. It is often added to toothpaste and municipal water sup
Page: Fogo Grego
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral O fogo grego, também conhecido como Fogo Bizantino, foi o antigo precursor do Napalm moderno (uma espécie de gasolina gelatinosa) e foi usado pela primeira vez em batalhas no final do século
Page: Fonofos
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Fonofos is a highly toxic organophosphate insecticide whose use has been discontinued in both the USA and Canada (#PMRA, 2000). It was used primar
Page: Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
 Overview Formed to regulate the content and safety of consumer drugs and food, the FDA was established as a government agency in 1930. Some of the specific functions of the FDA are regulating data on food labels, overseeing clinical trials for new drugs
Page: Food Coloring
Editor Maria M. Williams Author Maria M. Williams On this page: What Are Food Colorings? Exposure and Metabolism Health Hazards Regulation and Advocacy Recommendations References What Are Food Colorings? In the US, color additives are regulated by the Foo
Page: Food Colors: Hyping the Mind?
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Football head injury
Football is toxic to the head A warning in The Journal of the American Medical Association: "There is a very definite brain injury due to single or repeated blows on the head or jaw which cause multiple concussion hemorrhages. ... The condition can no lon
Page: Forest cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja melanoleuca Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxin Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Primarily west
Page: Formothion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Formothion is a systemic and contact organophosphate insecticide that is used sparingly on numerous small insects (#EXTOXNET). It is one of the
Page: Fowler's Solution
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Fowler's Solution is a potassium arsenic solution that was prescribed as a general tonic from about 1786 to 1936. The carcinogenic nature of arsenic compounds caused numerous disastro
Page: Fracking
see Hydraulic Fracturing and Hydraulic Fracturing: Is It Worth the Risk?
Page: France
See the World Library of Toxicology.
Page: Frances Oldham Kelsey
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Frances Oldham Kelsey, PhD, MD is a naturalized American pharmacologist, born July 24, 1914 and died August 7, 2015, most famous as the reviewer for the U.S. Food and Drug Administrat
Page: Franck Canorel
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Franck Canorel Overview Franck Canorel is graduate of the School of Public Health of Nancy - France (Faculty of Medicine), holder of a diploma of third cycle in health environment and a MD in geography and plan
Page: Francois Magendie
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview François Magendie (October 6, 1783 - October 7, 1855) was a French physiologist, considered a pioneer in experimental physiology. Born in France, Magendie researched the different mot
Page: Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act
Introduction On June 22, 2016, President Obama signed the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, a set of amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976. The product of several years of initiatives in Congress, the am
Page: François Magendie (Spanish)
Información General François Magendie (06 de octubre, 1783 - 07 de octubre, 1855) fue un fisiólogo francés, considerado uno de los pioneros en la fisiología experimental. Nacido en Francia, Magendie investigó las diferentes funciones motoras del cuerpo en
Page: Frederick Berman
Authors:Frederick Berman General Information Frederick Berman, DVM, PhD Director, Toxicology Information Center The Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology (CROET) Oregon Health and Science University Portland, Oregon Contributor
Page: French Milestones
French Translation of Milestones of Toxicology Repères historiques et découvertes qui ont façonné les sciences toxicologiques The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into French by Franck Canorel, Ph.D., at vacataire à l’université de Versaille
Page: Frequently Asked Questions
What is Toxipedia? Toxipedia is a project of the Institute of Neurotoxicology and Neurological Disorders (INND) that aims to become the comprehensive source of verifiable, edited content on all matters related to public and environmental health. How do I
Page: Friedrich Gaedcke
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Friedrich Gaedcke (June 5, 1828 - September 19, 1890) was a German chemist. He was first to isolate Cocaine in 1855 from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, originally from Peru and Bolivi
Page: Friedrich Gaedcke Spanish
Información General Friedrich Gaedcke (5 junio 1828 - 19 septiembre 1890) fue un químico alemán.  Él fue el primero en aislar la cocaína en 1855 a partir de las hojas de Erythroxylum coca, originaria de Perú y Bolivia.  Fue utilizado como anestésico en 18
Page: Friedrich Serturner
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner (June 19, 1783 in Neuhaus (near Paderborn), February 20, 1841 in Hamelin) was a German pharmacist who discovered morphine in 1805. Serturner was the f
Page: Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner
Información General Friedrich W. A. Sertürner (Neuhaus (hoy Paderborn), 19 de junio 1783 - 20 de febrero 1841 Hamelin) fue un farmacéutico alemán pionero del descubrimiento y aislamiento de los principios químicos de la morfina en 1805. Serturner fue el p
Page: Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a Baltic German chemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis, chemical equilib
Page: Friends
Friends of Toxipedia are organizations, agencies, and businesses that are working to promote public and environmental health and create a more sustainable world. These groups have voluntarily joined us as friends in an effort to provide mutual support and
Page: Friends of Toxipedia Guidelines
Friends of Toxipedia Benefits: Announcement of partnership in our monthly newsletter that reaches over 4,000 contacts from around the world. Connect with scientists and researchers from the around the world. Listing on our website as a supporting partner
Page: Fritz Haber
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Fritz Haber (December 9, 1868 - January 29, 1934) received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development of synthetic ammonia, which is important for fertilizers and explos
Page: From Risk Assessment to Precautionary Assessment
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Fuego Griego
Información General Fuego Griego tambien conocido como "fuego marino" era un arma incendiaria utilizada por el Imperio bizantino creada en el siglo VI, aunque su mayor uso y difusión se daría tras las primeras cruzadas (S.XIII). Los bizantinos la utilizab
Page: Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011 was the largest nuclear incident since the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. It occurred when the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan
Page: Fungicides
Name: Fungicides Use: kill fungus Source: synthetic chemistry, plants Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: intestine, inhalation, skin Sensitive individuals: fetus, children, elderly Toxicity/symptoms: nerous system, range of problem
Page: Furans
this page is in development Overview Furans (short form for (poly)chlorinated dibenzofurans) are produced unintentionally from many of the same processes that produce dioxins, and also during the production of PCBs. They have been detected in emissions fr
Page: Fusarium sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (231,252,254,282,341,735-739) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Acetoxyscirpenol (750), Acetoxyscirpentriol (750), Acetyldeoxynivalenol (750,753-755,758,759), 3-Acetyl-neosolaniol (751),15-Acetyl-nivalenol (757), 3-Acetyl-HT-2 toxin(751), Acety

G

Page: Gagney, Aileen
Aileen Gagney, Asthma and Environmental Health Program Manager, has a Master Degree in Architecture and a Master Degree in Fine Arts. She is a former designer/general contractor and presently operates her own residential inspection business in Seattle. Sh
Page: Gangrene
Overview Gangrene is the necrosis and later decay of body tissues. It is caused by an infection of the tissues or thombrosis or a ceasing of blood flow. It is often caused by a combination of injury or poor blood flow with bacterial contamination. The bes
Page: Garbage - Rethinking the Need for Bags
by Nancy S. Alton March 2009 Garbage brings out my inner cheapskate. I can't recall the last time I bought garbage bags to house the waste my family creates on a daily basis. It's ugly to admit I have loved the free plastic bags I got from stores. These b
Page: Garrett Hardin
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Garrett Hardin (April 21, 1915 - September 14, 2003) was trained as a microbiologist but was an influential ecologist most famous for his 1968 paper "Tragedy of the Commons" which outlined h
Page: Gaylord Nelson
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Gaylord Anton Nelson (June 4, 1916 - July 3, 2005) was a Democratic American Senator from Wisconsin who founded the Earth Day movement that began on April 22, 1970. In 1970, he called
Page: General Health
The active chemicals found in pesticides have been studied extensively to examine their impact on human health. Ties between pesticide exposure among applicators as well as the general public incidences of health issues have been correlated. The impacts o
Page: Genetic Toxicology and the Biology of Cancer
Genetic toxicology is the study of the effects of chemical and physical agents on genetic material. It includes the study of DNA damage in living cells that leads to cancer, but it also examines changes in DNA that can be inherited from one generation to
Page: Genetically Modified Foods
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Michelle Gaither These may be more prevalent than you realize. Hot dogs and protein bars with genetically modified (GM) soy protein, yogurt made with rbGH-injected (a genetic growth hormone) milk from cows, mac
Page: Geneva Protocol
Overview The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. It wa
Page: Georgi Ivanov Markov
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Georgi Ivanov Markov (March 1, 1929 - September 11, 1978) was a Bulgarian dissident. Markov originally worked as a novelist and playwright, but in 1969, he defected from Bulgaria, the
Page: Georgius Agricola
Información General Georgius Agricola, latinización de Georg Pawer (Glauchau, 24 de marzo de 1494- Chemnitz, 21 de noviembre de 1555) fue un alquimista, químico y mineralogista alemán, considerado el fundador de la mineralogía moderna. Desarrolló los prin
Page: Gerhard Schrader
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dr. Gerhard Schrader (February 25, 1903-1990) was a German chemist who specialized in the discovery of new insecticides. He hoped to make progress in the fight against hunger in the w
Page: Gerhard Schrader - Father of the Nerve Agents
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Gerhard Schrader Spanish
Información General Dr. Gerhard Schrader (25 de febrero de 1903-1990) fue un químico alemán que se especializó en el descubrimiento de nuevos insecticidas. Tenía la esperanza de avanzar en la lucha contra el hambre en el mundo, pero es más conocido por su
Page: German Milestones
German Translation of Milestones of Toxicology Lehren aus der Geschichte: Meilensteine in der Toxikologie The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into German by Christoph Wilhelm, Ph.D., University of Konstanz, Germany in April 2012. He directs
Page: Gertrude Bell
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell CBE (July 14, 1868 - July 12, 1926) was a British writer, traveler, political analyst, administrator in Arabia, and archaeologist who discovered Mesopo
Page: Ginger Jake
Overview In 1929, due to the large amount of alcohol bootlegging during prohibition in the United States, the production of bootleg drinks was never regulated. During Prohibition, people consumed a homemade alcoholic drink made out of Jamaican ginger that
Page: Ginger Jake - Spanish
Información General   En 1929, debido a la gran cantidad de contrabando de Alcohol durante la prohibición en los Estados Unidos, la producción de bebidas piratas nunca fue regulada.  Durante la prohibición, la gente consumieron una bebida alcohólica caser
Page: Giulia Tofana
Información General Giulia Tophania or Giulia Tofana or Toffana (1635-1719) fue una proveedora italiana de veneno para las mujeres que querían asesinar a sus maridos. Fue famosa por la venta del famoso veneno "Aqua Tofana", que lleva su nombre. La Tofana
Page: Giulia Tophania
Overview Guilia Tophania or Giulia Tofana or Toffana (1635-1719) was a supplier of poison to wives who wanted to be widows. She was executed later on by strangulation and to stop the murder incidents from continuing, King Louis XIV passed a decree forbidd
Page: Glenn T. Seaborg
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 - February 25, 1999) won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements" and contributed to th
Page: Global Justice
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Background Toxicological Perspective Earth Decleration The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st ce
Page: Global Practice of Toxicology and Allied Sciences - Articles on Developing Countries As a Whole
Return to bibliography main page.   Anonymous. 2003. Toxicology postgraduate research in developing countries. Chemistry International. 25(3):13-14. Ashby J., et al. 1993. Genetic toxicology in developing countries: comments and recommendations. Environme
Page: Global Practice of Toxicology and Allied Sciences - Countries and Regions A-E
Return to bibliography main page. Jump to: B C D E Afghanistan Fishcher L.1943. Medical Folk Lore in Afghanistan. Deutsche Tropenmedizinische Zeitschrift. 47(13/14):346-54. Africa Gopalan H.N. 1986. Genetic toxicology in Africa: problems and perspectives.
Page: Global Practice of Toxicology and Allied Sciences - Countries and Regions F-J
Return to bibliography main page. Jump to: G H I J   Finland Anttonen H. and Pääkkönen R. 2010. Risk assessment in Finland: theory and practice. Safety, Health & Work 1(1):1-10. Komulainen H. 2003. Online information sources of toxicology in Finland. Toxi
Page: Global Practice of Toxicology and Allied Sciences - Countries and Regions K-O
Return to bibliography main page. Jump to: L M N   Korea, South Jeong J. 2013. Empowerment of medical toxicology in South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology. 12(2):161. Lee J.H., et al. 2013. Bibliometric analysis of the Journal of the Kore
Page: Global Practice of Toxicology and Allied Sciences - Countries and Regions P-T
Return to bibliography main page. Jump to: R S T   Pakistan Abdur R.M. 1999. Status of forensic medicine in Pakistan. International Journal of Medical Toxicology & Legal Medicine. 1(2):6-8. Philippines Lim-Sylianco C.Y. 1986. Development of genetic toxico
Page: Global Practice of Toxicology and Allied Sciences - Countries and Regions U-Z
Return to bibliography main page.   United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales) French G.E. 1971. Occupational health in Britain: history and administration. District Nursing. 14(7):134-6. Burney I.A. 2002. Testing testimony: toxicolog
Page: Global Warming: Trapped Energy Impacts Health
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Glossary
Glossary of Toxicology Terms Due to the size of the glossary, it has been broken into two sections: A-J K-Z
Page: Glycine, N,N'- 1,2- ethanediylbisN-(carboxymethyl)-, sodium salt (1.4)
Overview Uses Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides and sodium oxides (HSDB) In a study on the toxicity of the chemical to cells, there was found to be a correlation
Page: Glyphosate
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide and is the active ingredient in various commercial formulations, most famously as the active ingredient in Roundup manufactured by
Page: GO, BOMBERS, GO! NUKE UM
GO, BOMBERS, GO! NUKE UM by Bill Witherup Sixty years after Trinity-Hiroshima-Nagasaki there is yet a high school in eastern Washington state that has for its sports teams mascot an atomic bomb. The high school is Richland High School, formerly Columbia H
Page: Godfrey Hounsfield
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (August 28, 1919 – August 12, 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan
Page: Godman's montane pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Cerrophidion godmani Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins, myotoxins and possibly cytotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: no
Page: Goiânia accident
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Goiânia accident was a radioactive contamination accident in central Brazil that killed 4, injured 28, and produced over 200 cases of detectable radiation poisoning. On September 13
Page: Golchin Onsori
  Golchin was Born in Iran/Oroumieh and in 2009 started for her studies at University of qushem as a medical student. She abetted to Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali Banagozar Mohammadi for translating The Milestones of Toxicology poster in November 2013.    
Page: Gold King Mine waste water spill
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The 2015 Gold King Mine waste water spill was a 2015 environmental disaster at the Gold King Mine near Silverton, Colorado. On August 5, 2015, employees of the United States Environme
Page: Gold Mining
This page is tagged for development and cleanup. Gold Mining Facts A single gold ring leaves in its wake at least 20 tons of mine waste Dirty Gold. Metal mines in the US produced 46 percent of toxic waste of the total for all US industry combined 96 perce
Page: Gold's tree cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Pseudohaje goldii Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Central Africa fr
Page: Golden crowned snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Cacophis squamulosus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Eastern Australia, coastal
Page: Golden Lancehead
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Bothrops insularis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, myotoxins, cytotoxins (necrotoxins) Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/sym
Page: Google Maps on Toxipedia
NOTE: We sincerely apologize as the Google maps are currently not rendering properly. This technical problem will be fixed as soon as possible. The maps below can also be accessed through the relevant topic pages, which we encourage you to explore: Advoca
Page: Grand Duke of Tuscany Francesco's Death
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Introduction Speculation has surrounded the cause of death - stated to be due to malaria, but many believe it was due to acute Arsenic Poisoning - of Grand Duke of Tuscany Francesco I de' Me
Page: Grand Rapids Fluoridation Trial
Note: The article below was prepared as a press release by the New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation with the title "Fluoridation's Unhappy Birthday." New York - January 25 – Sixty-three years ago, January 25, 1945, sodium fluoride was slowly p
Page: Graniteville train crash
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Graniteville, South Carolina train crash occurred on January 6, 2005, in Graniteville, South Carolina at roughly 2:40 am Eastern Standard Time, when Train No. 192, which was trans
Page: Grant Information
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Environmental Education Grants US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The Grants Program sponsored by EPA's Environmental Education Division (EED), Office of Children's Health Protection an
Page: Great lakes bushviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Atheris nitschei Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: East Africa, Uganda to ce
Page: Great Smog of 1952
Great Smog of 1952 Review TXP-1 Contents 1. Toxicological Perspective 2. Biography 3. Internal Links 4. References 5. External Links Toxicological perspective Biography Internal Links References External Links
Page: Greece
See the World Library of Toxicology.
Page: Greek Fire
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Greek Fire (also known as Byzantine Fire) was the ancient precursor to the modern Napalm and was first used in battles in the late seventh century. Greek Fire was largely responsible
Page: Green Chemistry
What Is Green Chemistry? "Green chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products." - Paul T. Anastas and John C. Wa
Page: Green Chemistry: For Our Children's Future
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward  A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental hea
Page: Green Run - Hanford
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview "Green Run" refers to a secret U.S. Air Force experiment at Washington State's Hanford Nuclear Reservation that released somewhere between 7,000 and 12,000 curies of iodine-131 into t
Page: Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS)
Overview Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS) is a malady that afflicts workers harvesting tobacco: nicotine is absorbed through the skin when handling wet tobacco leaves. Workers have reported symptoms of nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, headache, and, dep
Page: Greenhouse Effect
Topic editor:Maria M. Williams Author:Aleksandra Buha Greenhouse Effect: History Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) was a Swedish scientist who was the first to claim in 1896 that fossil fuel combustion may eventually result in enhanced global warming. He propo
Page: Gregor Johann Mendel
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822 – January 6, 1884) was a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the modern science o
Page: Gregory Wyche
Gregory Wyche is a graduate of the University of Connecticut, where he studied Environmental Science, with a concentration in Geoscience. After graduating, he spent several months with the Fish & Wildlife Service at Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia, observing
Page: Grey-headed snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Furina tristis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable Procoagulants, neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Austr
Page: Gross National Product Quote - Robert F. Kennedy
"The gross national product includes air pollution and advertising for cigarettes, and ambulances to clear our highways of carnage. It counts locks for our doors, and jails for the people who break them. "The gross national product includes the destructio
Page: Ground Zero - Population 5
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On July 19, 1957 five Air Force officers and one photographer stood at ground zero at the Nevada Nuclear test site outside Los Vegas Nevada to experience the air detention of a 2 kilo
Page: Groups
"Groups" are just that. Groups of different highly qualified individuals with access to the pages in which they are expert. The goal of Toxipedia is to have numerous different groups - The Metals Group, The Pesticides Group, The Tox Historian Group, etc.
Page: Gu
Overview The "Gu" was a common poison in ancient China. It was made by placing venomous animals into a large pot together. These animals included snakes, toads , scorpions, spider, and centipedes. After a period of time passed, the pot was opened and the
Page: Guianan slender coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Leptomicrurus collaris Basic Information Venom name: Type of Toxin: Postsynaptic neurotoxin and Myotoxin Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms:
Page: Gula
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Gula was the consort of the powerful Babylonian God Ninib and was known as the Goddess of Healing by the ancient Mesopotamians. Also known as "The Lady who restores life," Gula was sa
Page: Gula (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Gula foi esposa do poderoso deus babilônico Ninib e era conhecida como a deusa da cura pelos antigos mesopotâmios. Também conhecida como "A Senhora Que Restaura a Vida", Gula ajudou a reergu
Page: Gula (Spanish)
Información General Gula era el consorte de la poderosa Babilonia "La Puerta de Dios", y era conocida como la diosa de la curación por los antiguos mesopotámicos. También conocida como "La Señora que restauraba la vida," Gula se dice que ayudó a dar vida

H

Page: Haemorrhagins
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Page: Halabja Poison Gas Attack
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Halabja poison gas attack began on the evening of March 16, 1988 during the Iran-Iraq War. Chemical weapons were used by the Iraqi government forces on a number of civilians in th
Page: Half Life
Overview The half-life of a quantity of material subject to exponential or radioactive decay is the amount of time required for the material to decay to half of its original value.
Page: Hand Sanitizers
This page is from the P2RIC's SustainUpdates section from the University of Nebraska-Omaha Author: Chad Wetzel Overview Hand Sanitizers are a type of hand antiseptic that are used as an alternative to supplement hand washing with soap and water and are an
Page: Hanford Leaking Tanks and Plumes Risk Assessment
ADVOCACY GROUPS: [http://www.hanfordchallenge.org/|Hanford Challenge] [http://www.psr.org/chapters/washington/hanford/|Physicians For Social Responsibility] [http://www.hanfordwatch.org/|Hanford Watch] WEBSITES: Hanford Remediation at 20 Years: A Glass Ha
Page: Hans Geiger
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Hans "Gengar" Geiger (September 30, 1882 – September 24, 1945) a German physicist, was born in Neustadt-an-der-Haardt, Germany. He is perhaps best known as the co-inventor of the Geig
Page: Hardy Limeback
Biography Articles Written by Hardy Limeback Recognition and Management of Fluoride Toxicity
Page: Harmful Health Effects From Consumption of Certain Food Ingredients
Harmful health effects can result from the consumption of food ingredients that lead to alterations in epigenetic functioning.  Epigenetics refers to the study of how genes are regulated or expressed by methyl donating nutrients such as folic acid, B vita
Page: Harrison Narcotics Tax Act
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This page has been tagged for development. Overview William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 - July 26, 1925) was the chief proponent of the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914 which regulated an
Page: Harvey Spencer Lewis
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Harvey Spencer Lewis, Ph.D. (November 25, 1883 – August 2, 1939), born in Frenchtown, New Jersey, was a noted Rosicrucian author, occultist, and mystic. In 1915, he founded the Ancien
Page: Harvey W. Wiley
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Harvey Washington Wiley (October 30, 1844 - June 30, 1930) Supported by the Department of Agriculture's chief Chemist Harvey W. Wiley, the Pure Food and Drugs Act (1906) was created in 1906 to
Page: Hawk's Nest Incident
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Hawks Nest Tunnel Disaster involved injuries and deaths as the result of the construction of the Hawks Nest Tunnel near Gauley Bridge, West Virginia. This project is considered to
Page: Hawley Crippen
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Hawley Harvey Crippen (September 11, 1862 - November 23, 1910), usually (and erroneously) known as Dr. Crippen, was an American homeopathic physician hanged in Pentonville Prison, L
Page: Hazard Rankings
Acute Toxicity World Health Organization (WHO) Acute Hazard Rankings The WHO bases its ratings on the lowest published rat oral LD50, the lethal dose (in milligrams of substance per kilogram of body weight) that kills 50% of the test animals in a standard
Page: Head Trauma from Football: Toxic to the Brain
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: HEALTH CONCERNS ABOUT MERCURY
Mercury in the Environment http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?open=514&mode=2&objID=218874 What You Need to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/admehg3.html
Page: Health Effects of Alcohol
By any measure, alcohol has an enormous impact on our society: it contributes to at least 100,000 premature deaths, and economic costs are estimated to be over $275 billion a year, including medical expenses, lost worker productivity, automobile accidents
Page: Health Effects of Lead
Lead is one of the most intensively studied hazardous agents of the twentieth century. The more toxicologists and other researchers investigated the health effects of lead, the more they realized that even very low levels of lead exposure were hazardous (
Page: Health Effects of Plant Toxins
  This content is adapted from Chapter 17, An Introduction to the Health Effects Animal and Plant Toxins, from A Small Dose of Toxicology by Steven G. Gilbert. Author: Steven G. Gilbert Copyeditor: Maria M. Williams Plant Toxins: Quick Facts Use: medicina
Page: Health for All People
Relevant Content on Toxipedia: Environmental Justice, Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Toxicology, Pesticide Use in Developing Countries, E-waste, Children’s Environmental Health   "In a few decades, the relationship between the environment, resources
Page: Heather Gingerich
Biography Articles Written by Heather Gingerich Recognition and Management of Fluoride Toxicity
Page: Hebei Spirit oil spill
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On December 7, 2007 the oil tanker Hebei Spirit was hit by a break away crane barge owned by Samsung Heavy Industries resulting a major oil spill in South Korea resulting in ongoing e
Page: Heidi Siegelbaum
Heidi Siegelbaum is a principal for Calyx Sustainable Tourism, which builds capacity for sustainable tourism in Washington State and the Pacific NW Bioregion. She is deeply committed to chemical and toxics reform, having starting her environmental career
Page: Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (September 14, 1486 - February 18, 1535) was a German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist.   Toxicological Perspective   Biog
Page: Heinrich Hoffman
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Heinrich Hoffman (June 13, 1809 - September 20, 1894) was a German psychiatrist, born in Frankfurt-am-Main and studied at Halle; after graduating, he became a general practitioner in Frankfurt
Page: Heinrich Khunrath
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert  Overview Heinrich Khunrath (circa 1560-September 9, 1605), or Dr Henricus Khunrath as he was also called, was a famous physician, Hermetic philosopher, and alchemist. His most famous work is
Page: Helena Carmo
Authors: Helena Carmo Overview Helena Carmo is a Professor in the Toxicology Department of Faculty of Pharmacy at University of Porto (Portugal). She finished her graduation course in Pharmaceutical Sciences and her PhD in Toxicology in the same Universit
Page: Henri Becquerel
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 - August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. In 1896, while investigating phospho
Page: Henri Victor Regnault
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Henri Victor Regnault (July 21, 1810 - January 19, 1878) was a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases. Regnault distin
Page: Heptachlor
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Heptachlor is a nonsytemic stomach and contact organochlorine insecticide first synthesized in 1946 and banned in 1988 (#EXTOXNET and #ATSDR Public Health Statement). It was used exten
Page: Herbert Desel
Herbert Desel grew up in Immenhausen, Hessen, (in the middle of) Germany. Education  He graduated in Chemistry in 1982 and received a PhD degree 1985 with scientific work dealing with molecular processes of signal transduction in vision studied with spect
Page: Herbicides
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert  Introduction Herbicides, also referred to as weedkillers, are Pesticides used to kill unwanted plants. Herbicides account for about 69% of all pesticide use in the United States, where they a
Page: Hermann Emil Fischer
Información General Hermann Emil Fischer (9 de octubre de 1852, Euskirchen - 15 de julio de 1919, Berlín) due un químico alemán, galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Química en 1902. Fue el primer químico que planteó la fórmula de derivados de la purina, co
Page: Hermann Joseph Muller
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Hermann Joseph Muller (December 21, 1890 - April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate (1946) best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effe
Page: Hermes Trismegistus
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview —Egyptian alchemist, 172 BCE Memphis —author of the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism —combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian g
Page: Hermeticism
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview —Hermes Trismegistus - Egyptian alchemist - author of the Hermetic Corpus, a series of sacred texts that are the basis of Hermeticism —The four classical elements of earth, water, air
Page: Heroin
Heroin is a semi-synthetic opiod that was derived from the morphine molecule. It was initially marketed as the "hero-drug", hence the name heroin, and was supposedly free of the side-effects that accompanied morphine. Today it is one of the most widely us
Page: Heroine
HEROINE Review TXP-1 Contents 1. Toxilogical Perspective 2. Discovery and Development 3. Internal Links 4. References 5. External Links TOXILOGICAL PERSPECTIVE DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT INTERNAL LINKS Stella Nickell Cyanide References EXTERNAL LINKS
Page: Hexachlorobenzene
Lead Editor: Katarina Lah Lead Author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a fully chlorinated industrial hydrocarbon chemical. It is insoluble in water, but is very soluble in fat, oils, and organic solvents. Hexachlorobenzene is one of
Page: Hexachlorophene
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Hexachlorophene is a chemical used in numerous products, including Pesticides and as an anti-septic agent. It is acutely toxic and animal studies have shown it to have negative chronic
Page: Hexane
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Hexane, whose chemical structure is CH 3 (CH 2 )CH 3 , is an organic solvent made of crude oil that has numerous industrial uses (#ATSDR - ToxFAQs and #National Center for Environment
Page: Hieronyma Spara
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Using arsenic to poison their victims, Roman women & fortune teller, Hieronyma Spara formed Spara's secret organization in Rome and helped women plot to kill their wealthy husbands to
Page: Hieronyma Spara (Spanish)
Información General Usando el arsénico "arsenic" para envenenar a sus víctimas, las mujeres romanas y la adivina Hieronyma Spara formaron la organización secreta de Spara en Roma y ayudó las mujeres a conspirar para matar a sus maridos ricos para heredar
Page: High Production Volume (HPV) Chemicals
Contributing Editor: Starin McKeen High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals are those produced or imported in volumes greater than 1 million pounds. Approximately 4.7% of chemicals (3,300 chemicals out of approximately 70,000) are used in such significant q
Page: Highlights in the History of Toxicology
Overview The history of toxicology brims over with fascinating myths and legends, scientific milestones and innovations, and seminal documents. No more than a soupçon are covered here. From antiquity to the present day, toxicology has held us in its spell
Page: Hilary Karasz
Contents #Background #Pages Written #Groups #Pages Edited insert picture Background insert background information here Pages Written xxx Groups Pages Edited
Page: Himalayan pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert (Himalayan Pitviper, 2003) Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Ad
Page: Hindenburg Disaster
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview he Hindenburg disaster, May 6, 1937, when the hydrogen filled German passenger airship caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast in Lakehurst, New
Page: Hippocrates
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Hippocrates, Greek physician, (460-377 BC), has been dubbed "the father of modern medicine" and is widely considered one of the outstanding figures ever in the field of medicine. His
Page: Hipócrates
Información General Hipócrates, (460-377 a.C.) un médico de la Antigua Grecia , es considerado una de las figuras más destacadas de la historia de la medicina y muchos autores se refieren a él como "el padre de la medicina". Considerado el primer médico q
Page: Hipócrates (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Hipócrates, médico grego, (460-377 a.C.), foi apelidado de "o pai da medicina" e é considerado por muitos uma das figuras que mais se destacam no campo medicinal. Seus escritos rejeitaram a
Page: Hiroshima
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert HIROSHIMA, JAPAN On August 6, 1945 the first of 2 atomic bombs was dropped on Japan. The bomb Little Boy flown by Colonel Paul Tibbets was dropped from the Enola Gay killing an estimated 80,00
Page: Hiroshima Spanish
Info coming soon
Page: Historia de la Toxicología
Historia de la Toxicología Bienvenidos a Toxipedia, La enciclopedia de contenido de ciencia que todos pueden editar. A lo largo de los siglos, la ciencia toxicológica ha proporcionado la información que tiene dado forma a la sociedad y a la guiado. Empres
Page: Historical Walls
Historical Walls The Wall of Jericho - 8000 BC Historical Walls - 800 BC Historical Walls - 700 BC Hadrian's Wall - 122 AD    (History Table of Content)   8000 BC: The Wall of Jericho Perhaps one of the most ancient and famous walls is the Wall of Jericho
Page: History and Perspectives on Lead
History of Lead - by Gerald Markowitz, PhD and David Rosner, PhD Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution (California/Milbank Books on Health and the Public) - Paperback (Sept. 15, 2003) by Gerald Markowitz and David Rosner   Poster
Page: History of Lead Use
Significant production of lead began about 3000 BC, and large mines in Spain and Greece contributed to the global atmospheric redistribution of lead. The Roman Empire was the first society to use lead widely; in fact, the word plumbing is derived from plu
Page: History of Toxicology
New Resource: A Global Bibliographic Perspective on Toxicology! To explore over 2,500 searchable references on the history of toxicology and allied sciences, visit www.toxbibliography.org or www.toxbiblio.org! Overview Throughout the ages, toxicological s
Page: Holly Hatfield
Holly E. Hatfield Student at King College Major: Neuroscience Minor: Chemistry Future Goals: Obtain M.D. Sports: Varsity Cheerleading; Varsity Dance Team   Articles Written by XXX xxx Articles Edited by XXX
Page: Hombre de Vitruvio
Información General El Hombre de Vitruvio es un famoso dibujo acompañado de notas anatómicas de Leonardo da Vinci realizado alrededor del año 1490 en uno de sus diarios. Representa una figura masculina desnuda en dos posiciones sobreimpresas de brazos y p
Page: Homer
  Overview Although an exact dates of Homer's life are hard to establish, Herodatus places his life around 850 BCE. He wrote of the use of arrows poisoned with venom in the epic tale of The Odyssey and The Iliad. The Greek toxikon is arrow poison. The for
Page: Homero
Información General A pesar de no tener una fecha exacta de la vida de Homero, Herodatus pone su vida en torno a 850 antes de Cristo. Escribió sobre el uso de flechas envenenadas con veneno en la poesías épicas griegas la Ilíada y la Odisea. La palabra to
Page: Homero (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Com base nas estimativas do historiador grego Heródoto, Homero viveu por volta de 850 a.C, e escreveu sobre o uso de flechas envenenadas com toxinas nos contos épicos "A Íliada” e “A Odisséi
Page: Hormonal Contraception
This article is tagged for development. Author Steven G. Gilbert To read a Haitian Creola translation of this page, visit http://science.webhostinggeeks.com/hormonal-contraception-ht\ The oral contraceptive, used by more than 100 million women worldwide,
Page: Horned adder
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bitis caudalis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins, Postsynaptic neurotoxins, Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Ango
Page: Horned seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Acalyptophis peroni Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins, postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range:
Page: How Do We Assure a Sustainable, Nuclear-Free Future?- An Evening with Bob Alvarez
The environmental and human cost of the nuclear arms race has been staggering, with large areas of this country uninhabitable due to radiation leaks and contamination. To achieve the peace and climate stability required to reverse global warming the U.S.
Page: Howard Zinn
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Howard Zinn (August 24, 1922 – January 27, 2010) was an American historian, academic, author, playwright, and social activist. Before and during his tenure as a political science prof
Page: Human Rights
Resources "Is Environmental Health a Basic Human Right?" - Article published in the December 2004 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives, a peer-reviewed environmental health journal housed in the U.S. National Institutes of Environmental Health Scien
Page: Human Rights and the Environment
 Tuesday, February 24, 2008 The indiscriminate use of toxics and large-scale contamination of air and water is more than an environmental problem and more than a public health problem. It is a moral problem. Poisoning people is wrong. Formal human rights
Page: Hundred-pace pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: Hydraulic Fracturing
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Rachael Severtson Overview Natural gas is becoming known in the United States as the future of greener energy. Natural gas is cleaner burning than other current energy sources, e.g. coal, meaning it produces le
Page: Hydraulic Fracturing: Is it worth the risk?
Author:  Cody Rogers Contributed to Toxipedia as part of the University Partnerships Program. Overview Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” is a common method of obtaining natural gas and oil from rock formations, particularly shale. The process involves
Page: Hydrazine
Lead Author: Sara Worsham Lead Editor: Steven G. Gilbert Chemical and Physical Properties of Hydrazine Hydrazine is a colorless, oily liquid or sometimes white crystalline compound (Hydrazine 2000; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2008; Material Safe
Page: hydrochloric acid
Current Events Workers clean up phosphoric and hydrochloric acid spill following Monday train derailment in Mecca, California. See full Press-Enterprise article.

I

Page: Iatrochemistry
Iatrochemistry was an early form of pharmacology, influenced by alchemy. Practiced in the 16th and 17th centuries, most famously by Paracelsus, it sought to address the balance of the bodily fluids which comprise the four humors. Paracelsus, in a stance v
Page: Iatroquímica (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Iatroquímica foi uma forma antiga de farmacologia, influenciada pela alquimia. Foi praticada nos séculos 16 e 17, mais notoriamente por Paracelso. Procurava abordar o equilíbrio dos fluidos corporais qu
Page: Iliya A Bitkin
Iliya Alexandrovich Bitkin, PhD Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Yaroslavl State Medical Academy: Yaroslavl, RU Doctor of Pharmacy, Yaroslavl State Medical Academy: Yaroslavl, RU Yarsintez: Yaroslavl, RU Laboratory Director Estimated the toxicological e
Page: Ilya B. Slizovskiy
  Ilya Slizovskiy, B.Sc. Hons., is a recent research student graduate from Muhlenberg College (Allentown, PA, USA) who completed his degree with honors in Environmental Science and Chemistry, and a research concentration in Environmental Toxicology. Ilya
Page: Imazapic
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Imazapic is an imidazolinone herbicide that targets broadleaf weeds and annual or perennial grasses (#WSDOT). It can be used as both a pre-emergent or post-emergent herbicide. It may als
Page: Increase Scientific Impact
Lead Author: Deborah O'Keefe Overview Society of Toxicology (SOT) is a broad-based, multidisciplinary organization, whose members share the common goal of "creating a safer and healthier world by advancing the science of toxicology." Over the years, the S
Page: Increasing Stocks of Obsolete Pesticides
Overview <iframe width="425" height="350" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" src="http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?hl=en&ie=UTF8&msa=0&msid=107231493756430455566.00048d8efe469c49f3778&ll=42.032974,-28.125&spn=87.656688,149.41406
Page: index
Index Review TXP-1 {index}{index}
Page: India Nuclear Scrap
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On February 26, 2010, the University of Delhi, India, auctioned to a scrap dealer a Gammacell 220 research irradiator which contained cobalt-60. After dismantlement of the equipment,
Page: Indian humpnose pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Hypnale hypnale Physical information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southwestern India and Sri
Page: Indian School Poisoned Lunches
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   In the state of Bihar, India, 21 children died and more than two dozen others were hospitalized or sickend on July 17, 2013 after eating school lunch tainted with insecticide (organ
Page: Indochinese spitting cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja siamensis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Thailand, Cambod
Page: Inebriation
Inebriation is the state of drunkenness. Drunkenness, in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with ethyl alcohol to a sufficient degree to impair mental and motor functioning. Common symptoms may include impaired speech, loss of balanc
Page: Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics - Bibliographies and Other Reference Works
Return to bibliography main page.   This section of the bibliography cites the major toxicological reference works. Although there are not many of these resources when compared to say, journal articles or monographs, these are aggregates of vast amount of
Page: Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics - Databases and Ready References - A-E
Reviews of Specific Databases and Ready References A ACToR Judson R., et al. 2008. ACToR—aggregated computational toxicology resource. Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology. 233(1):7-13. Judson R.S., et al. 2012. Aggregating data for computational toxicology
Page: Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics - Databases and Ready References - F-J
Return to bibliography main page.   Reviews of Specific Databases and Ready References F FADB (Food Additives Database) Ginex T., et al. 2014. FADB: a food additive molecular database for in silico screening in food toxicology. Food Additives & Contaminan
Page: Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics - Databases and Ready References - P-T
Return to bibliography main page. Reviews of Specific Databases and Ready References P PAN Pesticide Database PASCAL PESTDOC PHYSPROP (Syracuse Research Corp) PHYTOTOX Fletcher J.S., et al. 1985. PHYTOTOX database evaluation of surrogate plant species rec
Page: Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics - Databases and Ready References - U-Z
Return to bibliography main page. Reviews of Specific Databases and Ready References U UK Poison Information Documents USEtox Henderson A.D., et al. 2011. USEtox fate and ecotoxicity factors for comparative assessment of toxic emissions in life cycle anal
Page: Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics - Databases and Ready References K-O
Return to bibliography main page. Reviews of Databases and Ready References M Material Safety Data Sheets Altvater T.S. 1990. Material safety data sheets: A user perspective. Professional Safety. 35(10):17. Beach J. 2002. The problem with material safety
Page: Informatics, Bibliometrics, Scientometrics - Databases and Ready References - General Reviews
Return to bibliography main page.   The following citations pertain to the “meat and potatoes” of the toxicology and allied science professions. These are the information resources that are consulted on a daily basis as professionals in the field go about
Page: Information Resources in Toxicology
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Information Resources in Toxicology, 4th Edition Editor-in-Chief - Philip Wexler Associate Editors - Steven G. Gilbert, Pertti J. Hakkinen and Asish Mohapatra Available for purchase from Scien
Page: Ingredient Disclosure like a Fishnet Stocking
by Heidi Siegelbaum Calyx Sustainable Tourism heidi@calyxsite.com (206) 784-4265 January 16, 2010 To read a label and understand not only its ingredients but what it means to your health and the local environment and your kids and your bottom line... is t
Page: Inland taipan
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: Inorganic Mercury Tragedies
This list includes both elemental (quicksilver) and inorganic mercury 1810 - salvaged a large load of elemental mercury from a wrecked Spanish vessel
Page: insecticidas
Insecticida Un insecticida es un compuesto químico utilizado para matar insectos. El origen etimológico de la palabra insecticida deriva del latín y significa literalmente matar insectos. Es un tipo de biocida. Los insecticidas tienen importancia para el
Page: Insecticides
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Physical Information Name: Insecticides Use: kill insects Source: synthetic chemistry, plants Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: intestine, inhalation, skin Sensitive i
Page: Institute of nanotechnology
http://www.nano.org.uk/nano/nanotubes.htm
Page: Integrated Pest Management
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an environmentally sensitive yet highly effective strategy for pest management on both a commercial and residential level. It aims at recognizing the needs
Page: Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Integrated pest management (IPM) is an approach to pest management that can significantly reduce pesticide use. Widely used in agriculture, landscape maintenance, and structural pest control, it emphasizes prevention and monitoring of pest problems and co
Page: Interesting talks
Interesting talk to attend for extra credit Write up short paragraph on the topics relationship to risk assessment - send to Stephanie and Steve Pacific Northwest Premiere of the highly-acclaimed documentary 'A Chemical Reaction' Co-hosted by the Coalitio
Page: Intern at Toxipedia
Internships Overview Toxipedia will be accepting applications this summer for positions beginning in fall 2013. We are seeking talented people with various capabilities, and anyone with an interest in public health or toxicology should apply. Tasks for in
Page: International Agency for Research on Cancer
Overview "The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization. Its mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and to develop scientific strateg
Page: International Atomic Energy Agency
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpos
Page: International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics
Overview Taken from the ISSX website: "The International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics (ISSX) is the premier scientific organization for researchers interested in the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics.  ISSX was formed in 1981 when a small
Page: International Union of Toxicology
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert   IUTOX's mission is to foster international scientific cooperation among toxicologists, promote the global acquisition, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge in the world of science of to
Page: International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX) History
IUTOX - International Union of Toxicology IUTOX mission - To foster international scientific cooperation among toxicologists and promote global acquisition, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge in the science of toxicology and ensure continued trai
Page: Intoxicación con Arsénico en Bangladesh 1970
Información General Millones de pozos entubados fueron excavadas a principios de los años 1960 y 1970 financiados por el UNICEF y el Banco Mundial en Bangladesh y Bengala Occidental, India, en un esfuerzo para proporcionar suficiente agua para usos agríco
Page: Introduction to Exstrophy
Introduction As a group, the exstrophy anomalies range in severity from distal epispadias to cloacal exstrophy. These anomalies share consistent anatomic features due to the deformation that caused them. This group of congenital anomalies includes: • Clas
Page: Introduction to Neurotoxicology
The vulnerability of the nervous system to both temporary changes and permanent damage from a wide variety of agents is increasingly evident. For thousands of years humans have searched out agents that affect the nervous system. Many people today are regu
Page: Introduction to the Health Effects of Air Pollution
This content is taken from a chapter of A Small Dose of Toxicology by Steve Gilbert.   On this page: Quick Facts Case Studies Introduction and History Air Pollutants Child Health and Air Pollution Reducing Exposure Regulation of Air Pollution Recommendati
Page: Introduction to the Health Effects of Nanoparticles
This content is taken from a chapter of A Small Dose of Toxicology by Steve Gilbert.   On this page: Quick Facts Case Studies Introduction and History Nanomaterials in Use Health and Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials Reducing Exposure Regulation of N
Page: Introduction to Toxicology
Course Description and Material Do you want to learn more about the principles of toxicology and the health effects of chemical exposures? You will benefit from "A Small Dose of Toxicology," a basic course based on the book A Small Dose of Toxicology by S
Page: Iodine
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Iodine is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol I and atomic number 53. It is required in trace amounts by most living organisms. Just the facts Physical Information Nam
Page: Iodine is Essential but I-133 is a Hazard to the Thyroid
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Ionizing Radiation
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ionizing radiation has many common uses, but can also be disastrous to human health. Ionizing radiation carries enough energy to produce ion pairs as it passes through matter. It free
Page: Ira Remsen
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ira Remsen, (February 10, 1846 - March 4, 1927) along with Constantin Fahlberg discovered Saccharin in 1879. Ira Remsen, was born in New York City and earned a Doctor of Medicine from
Page: Ira Remsen (Spanish)
Información General Ira Remsen (10 de febrero de 1846 - 4 de marzo, 1927) fue un químico estadounidense que junto con Constantin Fahlberg descubrió el edulcorante artificial sacarina y fue el segundo presidente de la Universidad de Johns Hopkins.  Ira Rem
Page: IRAN
Country Correspondent: Ali Banagozar Mohammadi   Universities (دانشگاهها و مراکز دانشگاهی)   Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences 1-Toxicology Ward, Department of Forensic Medicine & Clinical toxicology, Faculty of Medicine http://fmedicine.a
Page: Iraq Chemical Weapons Program
TABUN Review TXP-1 Table of Contents #History #Types and Classification #Current Events #Precaution #Regulation #Advocacy and Opinion #Teaching Resources #References PHARMACOLOGY AND METABOLISM HISTORY CURRENT EVENTS December 6, 2006 China has reaffirmed
Page: Irene D. Hays
Irene D. Hays is a Washington State native who has lived and worked as a teacher, writer, and education director in Idaho, Hawaii, Colorado, and California. She currently lives in the shrub-steppe grassland of Richland, Washington. Her poems have appeared
Page: Isaac Newton
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Sir Isaac Newton, (December 25, 1642 - March 20, 1726]) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian and one of the most influen
Page: Isobenzane
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Debelopment #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and Opinion #Teachin
Page: Isobutyronitrile
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Isobutyronitrile Synonyms: 2-methylpropionitrile, isopropyl cyanide, 2-methyl-propanenitrile Molecular Formula: C 4 H 7 N Use: Source: Recommended dai
Page: isocianato de metilo
Información General El isocianato de metilo es un compuesto orgánico con fórmula molecular C2H3NO. Su principal uso industrial es la fabricación de pesticidas. Un error humano (se ignoró la inversión en equipos de mantenimiento) produjo el desastre de Bho
Page: Isopropyl Acetate
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Synonyms: Acetic acid, isopropyl ester, 2-acetoxypropane, 2-propyl acetate, acetic acid, 1-methylethyl ester, acetic acid, isopropyl ester, paraceta
Page: Isopropylbenzene
Overview Isopropylbenzene, also knows as Cumene, is an organic compound commonly found in crude oil and refined fuels. It is colorless liquid that has a smell similar to gasoline. Uses Isopropylbenzene is fonund in the following prodcuts: Herbicides Aspha
Page: Isotretinoin
Author: Rebekah Frye (4/28/2015) Contributed as part of Toxipedia's University Partnerships Program. Overview Isotretinoin is a retinoid compound, or a compound capable of producing similar effects as Vitamin A4. It has the potential to initiate detriment
Page: Italian Milestones
Italian Translation of Milestones of Toxicology Le Pietre Miliari della Tossicologia (Ora disponibile in più di 12 lingue) The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into Italian by Paolo and Francesco Costa with help from their father Lucio Costa
Page: Italy
See the World Library of Toxicology.
Page: Ixtoc I
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Ixtoc I was an exploratory oil well being drilled by the semi-submersible platform Sedco 135F in the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico, about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Ciudad de

J

Page: Jack Vanden Heuvel
Jack Vanden Heuvel, PhD Dr. Vanden Heuvel is a Professor of Molecular Toxicology in the Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences at Penn State. He obtained his Ph.D. in Environmental Toxicology from the University of Wisconsin and conducted post-d
Page: James D. Watson
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the three co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, with Rosalind Franklin and Francis C
Page: James M. Anderson
James M. Anderson is a Manager, Portland Harbor Section Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Northwest Region (DEQ NWR). Articles Written by XXX Healthy World Theater - Joke Articles Edited by XXX
Page: James Marsh
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview James Marsh (September 2, 1794-June 21, 1846) was an English chemist who developed the Marsh Test for detecting arsenic. He was inspired to develop the test, which was highly sensitiv
Page: James Marsh (Spanish)
Información General James Marsh (2 de septiembre 1794 - 21 de junio 1846) fue un químico británico que inventó la Prueba de Marsh para detectar arsénico arsenic. James Marsh (September 2, 1794-June 21, 1846) was an English chemist who developed the Marsh
Page: James McGrath
Poet and artist. Wrote SPEAKING with MAGPIES, Sunstone Press (2007) Also did the art work for Bill Witherup's book down wind, down river Material by James McGrath Poem - GIFTS OF THE MAGPIE
Page: James Smithson
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   James Smithson, MA, FRS (ca. 1765 – June 27, 1829) was a British chemist and mineralogist. He was the founding donor of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC.     References
Page: Janice E. Camp
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Janice Camp Janice E. Camp Janice Camp is a practicing occupational health and safety professional and Senior Lecturer, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington and director of t
Page: January 1
1947 - Control of atomic energy today 1947 was transferred from military to civilian hands in the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. 1797 - The first American med
Page: January 10
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Page: January 11
1887 - Aldo Leopold, born today 1887 America's first bioethicist and author of A Sand County Almanac. 1906 - Albert Hofmann, born today 1906 a prominent Swiss scientist at Sandoz Laboratories, Basel (now Novartis) best known as the "father" of LSD. 1951 -
Page: January 12
1899 - Paul Hermann Muller, born today 1899, Swiss Scientist, was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for recognizing DDT as useful in the control of certain vector-borne diseases, including malaria and yellow fever. previous day - nex
Page: January 13
1947 - US War Assets Administration today 1947 disposed of drums of sodium in Lake Lenore, an alkaline lake in the Grand Coulee area of eastern Washington State (near Spokane, WA). 1864 - Wilhelm Wien, born today 1864 was a German physicist who, in 1893,
Page: January 14
2007 - A train wreck today 2007 in Kentucky, USA released 30,000 gallons of butyl acetate. 1898 - Lewis Carroll died today 1898, whose real name was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass
Page: January 15
1998 - The Precautionary Principle Wingspread Statement was ratified today 1998. 1929 - Martin Luther King, Jr. was born today 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia and assassinated April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee. previous day - next day
Page: January 16
1920 - The Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, today 1920, , U.S. Prohibition, was certified as ratified on January 16, 1919 and went into effect on January 16, 1920. 1975 - Bando Mitsugoro VIII died today 1975 after eating fugu fish Tetrodotox
Page: January 17
1961 - President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower today 1961 used the term military-industrial complex in his Farewell Address to the Nation. 1966 - Palomares incident occurred today 1966 when a B-52G bomber of the USAF Strategic Air Command, car
Page: January 18
2011 - Lake Coeur d'Alene today 2011, an estimated 352,000 pounds of lead washed into Lake Coeur d'Alene after flooding related to rain and snow. 1977 - Trident I, today 1977, a MIRV (multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle) missile that typical
Page: January 19
1878 - Henri Victor Regnault died today 1878 a French chemist and physicist and first to synthesize several chlorinated hydrocarbons including Vinyl Chloride and polyvinyl chloride in 1835. previous day - next day
Page: January 2
1897 - Theodore Wormley died today 1897, wrote The Micro Chemistry of Poisons, was the first American book dedicated to poisons. 2006 - An explosion in a coal mine led to the death of 12 of 13 miners in the 2006 Sago Mine disaster in West Virginia. previo
Page: January 20
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Page: January 2010 Newsletter
Happy New Year from all of us at Toxipedia. We're looking forward to our third year on the web, providing trusted information on toxicology and public and environmental health. Along with continued submissions on topics related to these fields, we have se
Page: January 21
1954 - The USS Nautilus, was launched today 1954, first nuclear-powered submarine, in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, then the First Lady of the United States. 1968: U.S. B-52 Nuclear Weapons Crash - today 1968, B-52 jet carrying nuclear weapons
Page: January 22
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Page: January 23
1882 - Robert Christison, died today 1882, a prominent analytical toxicologist, experimented extensively with poisons. 1912 - The International Opium Convention was signed today 1912 at The Hague. 1978 - Sweden became the first nation in the world to ban
Page: January 24
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Page: January 25
1627 - Robert Boyle - born today 1627 - Considered the first modern chemist but with roots in the alchemical tradition 1945 - Fluoride added to drinking water today 1945, in Grand Rapids, Michigan - the first municipality to add  in an effort to prevent t
Page: January 26
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Page: January 27
2010 - Howard Zinn died today 2010 put history in context. Author of best-selling and influential A People's History of the United States. 1951 - The first nuclear bomb test occurred today 1951 at the Nevada Test Site ; a one-kiloton bomb was dropped on F
Page: January 28
1969 - The Santa Barbara oil spill occurred today 1969  in the Santa Barbara Channel, releasing an estimated 3 million gallons of crude oil into the channel and onto the beaches of Santa Barbara, California, USA. previous day - next day
Page: January 29
1886 - Karl Benz today 1886 patented the first successful gasoline-driven automobile. 1934 - Fritz Haber, died 1934, a German chemist who first synthesized ammonia. 1978 - Sweden today 1978 outlawed aerosol sprays due to their harmful effect on the ozone
Page: January 3
1966 - The Psychedelic Shop, opened today 1966 the world's first head shop, opened on Haight Street near Ashbury in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco. 1961 - National Reactor Testing Station accident today 1961 in eastern Idaho, the SL-1, o
Page: January 30
2000 - Baia Mare Cyanide Spill today 2000, A dam holding contaminated waters burst at a mining works in Bozinta Mare, Romania burst and 100,000 cubic meters of cyanide-contaminated water (containing an estimated 100 tonnes of cyanide). previous day - next
Page: January 31
1958 - Today 1958 a Strategic Air Command B-47 Stratojet carrying a fully armed MK-6 nuclear bomb at Sidi Slimane Air Base, Morocco was practicing simulated take-offs when one of its landing gear wheels failed and the plane's tail struck the ground, ruptu
Page: January 4
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Page: January 5
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Page: January 6
1714 - Percivall Pott, born today 1714 English physician and surgeon, discovered the link between occupational carcinogens and scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. 1884 - Gregor Johann Mendel died today 1884 - a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augusti
Page: January 7
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Page: January 8
1831 - John Pemberton an American druggist born today 1831, known for being the inventor of Coca-Cola. previous day - next day
Page: January 9
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Page: January Newsletter
A Toxipedia Update - January 2009 Featured Quote "A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise." Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac, 1949 Featured Article "Bi
Page: Japanese mamushis
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Gloydius blomhoffi Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, anticoagulants, haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic
Page: Japanese Translation
Japanese Translation of Milestones of Toxicology    教訓から学ぶ: 毒性学のあゆみ The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into Japanese by Shihyi Hong with editing assistance by Maria Williams in May 2015. To open or download the Japanese Milestone poster cl
Page: Jararaca
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Bothrops jararaca Physical Information Venon name: Toxins:Procoagulants, myotoxins and cytotoxins (necrotoxins) Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/sy
Page: Javan spitting cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja sputatrix Physical Information Venom name: Postsynaptic neurotoxins, cytotoxins, cardiotoxins Toxins: Phospholipase A2 enzymes, α-neurotoxins (sputa-neurotoxin 1 and sputa-neurotoxin 2), 
Page: Jay Herzmark
Jay Herzmark's day gig is as an industrial hygienist at the University of Washington. He is also a safety representative for his union, the Washington Federation of State Employees. He has a master's degree in Occupational Health Nursing from the City Uni
Page: JD-109
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: JD-2000
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Jean Nicot
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Jean Nicot (1530 - May 4, 1600) was a French diplomat and scholar, brought the tobacco plant to Europe and it was named after him as well as nicotine. He sent tobacco and seeds from P
Page: Jeffery Moffit
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Page: Jerdon's lancehead
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Protobothrops jerdoni Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, and possible haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic
Page: Jessica Burley
Jessica Burley is in her final year at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. She will have a degree in Environmental Health Science in June 2008. She is an Ohio Environmental Protection Agency scholar receiving their Environmental Science and Engineering Schol
Page: Jianghong Liu
Jianghong Liu PhD, RN Associate Professor, School of Nursing University of Pennsylvania The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into Chinese by Jianghong Liu, PhD, RN, with editing done by Xinsheng Gu (顾新生). To open or download the Chinese Mile
Page: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (August 28, 1749 – March 22, 1832) was a German writer, artist, and politician wrote literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and col
Page: John E. Franz
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview In 1970, research chemist John Franz, born December 21, 1921, discovered the glyphosate class of herbicides, while working for Monsanto, and searching for a systemic product that woul
Page: John Evelyn
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview John Evelyn (October 31, 1620 – February 27, 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.  Noted for writing one of the first books on air pollution - Fumifugium, or the inconve
Page: John F. Kennedy
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert President John F. Kennedy addresses crowd, at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Richland, Washington, September 26, 1963 President John F. Kennedy gives speech regarding N reactor and nuclear t
Page: John Jones
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview John Jones (1644 or 1645 - August 22, 1709) was a Welsh cleric, inventor and physician. Dr. Jones extensively researched the medical effects of Opium and wrote The Mysteries of Opium
Page: John Jones (Spanish)
Información General John Jones (1644 or 1645 - August 22, 1709) Era un clérigo galés, inventor y médico. Dr. Jones extensamente investigado los efectos médicos de opio y escribió The Mysteries of Opium Revealed en 1701. También colaboró con el científico
Page: John Pemberton
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview John Stith Pemberton (January 8, 1831 - August 16, 1888) was a Confederate veteran and an American druggist, and perhaps was best known for being the inventor of Coca-Cola, which in h
Page: John Richard Hersey
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview John Richard Hersey born June 17, 1914, died March 24, 1993 was a Pulitzer Prize-winning American writer and journalist considered one of the earliest practitioners of the so-called N
Page: John Robert Vane
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Sir John Robert Vane (March 29, 1927 - November 19, 2004) was an English pharmacologist, born in Tardebigg, Worcestershire. He was educated at King Edward's School in Edgbaston, Birmi
Page: John Rylands Library
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The John Rylands Library, is a Victorian Gothic building on Deansgate in Manchester, England. The library, which opened to the public January 1, 1900, was founded by Mrs Enriqueta Aug
Page: John Snow
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview John Snow (March 15, 1813 - June 16, 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. He is considered to be one of the fathers of epidem
Page: John W. Roberts
John W. Roberts or Dr. Dust - author, leader, inspiration to us all Founder of the Master Home Environmentalists May 16, 1924 - October 24, 2008 John Roberts or Dr. Dust as he is better known, continues to lead and inspire as he moves past 80 years of age
Page: Jonas Salk
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his discovery and development of the first successful polio vacc
Page: Jonathan Schell
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Jonathan Edward Schell (August 21, 1943 – March 25, 2014) was an American author and visiting fellow at Yale University, whose work primarily dealt with campaigning against nuclear we
Page: Jordan, Scott A.
Scott A. Jordan, PhD, is a toxicologist with the Marketed Health Products Directorate of Canada. Articles Written by Scott A. Jordon William Saunders
Page: Joseph Bienaimé Caventou
Overview Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (1795-1877) was a French chemist. He was a professor at the École de Pharmacie (School of Pharmacy) in Paris. He collaborated with Pierre-Joseph Pelletier in a Parisian laboratory located behind an apothecary. He was a pi
Page: Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (Spanish)
Información General Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (1795-1877) fue un químico francés.  Él fue un profesor de la Escuela de Farmacia (Facultad de Farmacia) en París. Él colaboró con Pierre-Joseph Pelletier en un laboratorio parisino, ubicado detrás de un botica
Page: Joseph Caventou and Pierre Pelletier
Overview Pharmacists isolated quinine from bark of the Cinchona Tree in back of their pharmacy. Pierre-Joseph Pelletier (22 March 1788 – 19 July 1842) was a French chemist who did notable research on vegetable alkaloids, and was the co-discoverer of quini
Page: Joseph Caventou y Pierre Pelletier (Spanish)
Información General Los farmacéuticos que aislaron el alcaloide activo de la corteza de la quina y lo llamó quinina ubicado detrás de un boticario. Pierre Joseph Pelletier (22 de Marzo de 1788 - 19 de julio de 1842) fue un naturalista y químico francés qu
Page: Joseph Farman
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Joseph Charles Farman CBE (August 7, 1930 – May 11, 2013) was a British geophysicist who with Brian Gardiner and Jon Shanklin published the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica
Page: Joseph Indvik
Joe Indvik served as the Lead Content Developer for the Toxipedia daughter-site IPM-opedia during winter 2008.  He plans to return in summer 2008. Joe is a sophomore at Dartmouth College.  He is pursuing a major in Economics modified with Environmental St
Page: Joseph Lawrence Sax
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Joseph Lawrence Sax (February 3, 1936 – March 9, 2014) was an environmental law professor, known for developing the public trust doctrine.   Sax was involved in environmental and cons
Page: Joseph Lister
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert   Overview Joseph Lister, (April 5, 1827 – February 10, 1912), was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery. By applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, he promoted the id
Page: Joseph Priestley
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Joseph Priestley, (March 13, 1733 – February 6, 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who
Page: Journals of the Society of Toxicology
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Journal of Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology - 1959 to present TAAP is a monthly publication which contains scientific papers and articles that have to do with the fields of toxicology and phy
Page: Juda Hirsch Quastel
Juda Hirsch Quastel, referred to most often as "Harry" or simply "Q", was a British Canadian Biochemist who pioneered diverse research in numerous fields including neurochemistry, soil metabolism, cell metabolism, and Cancer. One of his myriad of accompli
Page: Juliana DeCarvalho Anderson
Juliana was Born in Brazil and raised in Seattle, WA where she attended University of Washington. She joined the Toxipedia crew in 2012 as an editor, researcher, and to manage the development and launch of Toxipedia in Español .  A committed activist, she
Page: July 1
1968 - The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed today 1968 in Geneva, Switzerland by about sixty countries. previous day - next day
Page: July 10
1919 - Abraham Jacobi, died today 1919, the father of pediatrics. 1976 - The Seveso disaster today 1976, an industrial accident that caused exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), occurred around 12:37 pm in a small chemical manufacturing
Page: July 11
1978 - The Los Alfaques disaster, today 1978, a truck carrying liquid gas crashed and exploded at a coastal campsite in Tarragona, Spain and 216 tourists were killed. previous day - next day
Page: July 12
1813 - Claude Bernard, born today 1813, a French medical doctor who aimed to establish a scientific method in medicine that relied on scientific experimentation. 1926 - Gertrude Bell, committed suicide today 1926, the "Uncrowned Queen of Iraq," by taking
Page: July 13
1959 - A partial meltdown occurred today 1959 at the Boeing-Rocketdyne nuclear testing facility about 30 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. previous day - next day
Page: July 14
1868 - Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell, born today 1868, called the "The Uncrowned Queen of Iraq," committed suicide by taking sleeping pills on July 12, 1926. previous day - next day
Page: July 15
1919 - Emil Fischer, died today 1919, a German chemist and Nobel Prize winner who first isolated caffeine in 1895 from plant extracts. previous day - next day
Page: July 16
1945 - Trinity Nuclear Test today 1945, a plutonium implosion bomb was detonated, first nuclear test, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. 1979 - The dam at Church Rock Uranium Mill burst today 1979, releasing more than 1,100 tons of radioactive mill waste and 90
Page: July 17
1944 - Napalm incendiary bombs dropped today 1944. for the first time by American P-38 pilots on a fuel depot at Coutances, near St. Lô, France. 1998 - Biologists reported today 1998, in the journal Science the discovery of the genome sequence for the bac
Page: July 18
1797 - Robert Christison, born today 1797, a prominent analytical toxicologist who experimented extensively with poisons and was appointed medical officer to the Crown in Scotland. previous day - next day
Page: July 19
1957 - Nevada Nuclear test site outside Las Vegas today 1957 five Air Force officers and one photographer stood at ground zero to experience the air detention of a 2 kiloton nuclear bomb 18,500 feet above them. previous day - next day
Page: July 2
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Page: July 20
1986 - South African police fired tear gas today 1986 to break up a funeral service for a 15-year-old girl killed in the black township of Kagiso. 1822 - Gregor Johann Mendel, born today 1822 was a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar
Page: July 2010 Newsletter
Happy Summer from all of us at Toxipedia. Now well into the growing season here in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, we thought it fitting to dedicate this newsletter to pesticides. Our team of researchers has been diligently working to create,
Page: July 21
1810 - Henri Victor Regnault born today 1810, a French chemist and physicist and first to synthesize several chlorinated hydrocarbons including Vinyl Chloride and polyvinyl chloride in 1835. previous day - next day
Page: July 22
1992 - Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar, today 1992, head of the Medellin Cartel and the largest Cocaine dealer in the world, escaped from his luxury prison, fearing extradition to the United States. previous day - next day
Page: July 23
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Page: July 24
1914 - Frances Oldham Kelsey, born today 1914, blocked the approval of Thalidomide while at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2005 - Richard Doll, died today 2005, British epidemiologist and physiologist. previous day - next day
Page: July 25
1946 - An atomic bomb was detonated underwater today 1946 in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll during Operation Crossroads, code name Baker - called "the world's first nuclear disaster." 2010 - The Talmadge Creek oil spill today 2010 caused by a rupture in Enbri
Page: July 26
1925 - William Jennings Bryan, died today 1925, chief proponent of the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act. 1612 - Murad IV Ghazi the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640 born today 1612, banned alcohol, Tobacco, and coffee in Constantinople. He ordered
Page: July 27
1966 -  Norman McAlister Gregg, died today 1966 an Australian ophthalmologist, discovered that rubella suffered by a pregnant woman could cause birth defects in her child (congenital rubella syndrome). previous day - next day
Page: July 28
1853 - António Joaquim Ferreira da Silva born today 1853 Oliveira de Azemeis near the city of Porto, in northern Portugal. He made notable achievements in analytical chemistry, particularly at the interface of toxicology with hydrology, food science and f
Page: July 29
1957 - The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established today 1957 to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. previous day - next day
Page: July 3
2005 - Gaylord Nelson, died today 2005, a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin who called for the establishment of Earth Day on April 22, 1970. previous day - next day
Page: July 30
1973 - The pharmaceutical company today 1973 that marketed Thalidomide agreed to pay more than £20 million in compensation to those born with birth defects after an 11-year legal battle. previous day - next day
Page: July 31
1998 - California Pesticide Exposure today 1998 at 4 a.m., a cotton field was sprayed aerially with a pesticide solution containing carbofuran and carbamate. At 6 a.m., the 34 workers (age range: 13-64 years; median: 31 years) entered the field to complet
Page: July 4
1934 - Marie Curie, died today 1934 in Sancellemoz, France, a Polish-French Nobel price winning physicist and chemist. previous day - next day
Page: July 5
1996 - Dolly a female domestic sheep was cloned from an adult somatic cell, today 1996, after 277 attempts by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and colleagues at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh in Scotland. previous day - next day
Page: July 6
1988 - Camelford water pollution incident, today 1988, 20 tonnes of aluminum sulphate were accidental dumped into the drinking water supply to the town of Camelford, Cornwall, England, 1885 - Louis Pasteur today 1885, successfully tested his vaccine again
Page: July 7
  2006 - The British Houses of Parliament were temporarily shut down, today 2006, due to an anthrax alert. previous day - next day
Page: July 8
1897 - Sir Austin Bradford Hill - born today 1897, English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Sir Richard Doll, was the first to demonstrate the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.
Page: July 9
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Page: June 1
1974 - Flixborough Disaster: Today 1974, an explosion at a chemical plant in North Lincolnshire, England, killed 28 people. previous day - next day
Page: June 10
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Page: June 11
323 BCE - Alexander the Great died today 323 BCE, possibly from hellebore or Strychnine poisoning. previous day - next day
Page: June 12
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Page: June 13
1809 - Heinrich Hoffman, born today 1809, who first described Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in 1845 in a poem. 1894 - Leo Kanner, born today 1894, an Austrian-American psychiatrist and physician known for his work related to autism. 1926
Page: June 14
1864 - Alois Alzheimer, born today 1864, the first to define Alzheimer's Disease on November 3, 1906. 1789 - Whiskey distilled from maize was first produced today 1789, by the American clergyman Rev Elijah Craig in Bourbon County, Kentucky. previous day -
Page: June 15
1899 - Benjamin F. Feingold, M.D., born today 1899, was a pediatric allergist from California, who proposed in 1973 that salicylates, artificial colors, and artificial flavors cause hyperactivity in children (ADHD). 1991 - Mount Pinatubo erupted, today 19
Page: June 16
1858 - John Snow died today 1858, a British physician, considered to be one of the fathers of epidemiology, because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, England, in 1854. 1878 - Crawford Long, died today 1878, an American physi
Page: June 17
1911 - Othmar Zeidler died today 1911, an Austrian chemist credited with the first synthesis of DDT, (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane) in 1874. However, he did not recognize it usefulness as an insecticide as Paul Hermann Muller did in 1939. 1925 - The
Page: June 18
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Page: June 19
1783 - Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner, born today 1783 in Neuhaus (near Paderborn), a German pharmacist who discovered Morphine in 1805. previous day - next day
Page: June 2
1800 - The first smallpox vaccination in North America took place today 1800 at Trinity, Newfoundland. 1855 - The Portland Rum Riot occurred today 1855 in Portland, Maine, response to the Maine law which prohibited the sale and manufacture of alcohol. pre
Page: June 20
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Page: June 2010 Newsletter
Over the past few weeks we have had some exciting developments at Toxipedia that we would like to share with you. Toxipedia Web Development Services, our new research and web consulting arm, has been hired to do investigative research on a couple of topic
Page: June 21
1846 - James Marsh, born today 1846, an English chemist who developed the Marsh Test for detecting Arsenic. 1995 - Hog waste lagoon at Oceanview Farms ruptured today 1995, spilling nearly 22 million gallons of hog waste into the surrounding area, includin
Page: June 22
1916 - Harvey Spencer Lewis, today 1916 hosted what was announced as a "transmutation" of zinc into gold — a demonstration of classic alchemical principles, in New York City. 1969 - The polluted Cuyahoga River caught fire today 1969 in Cleveland, Ohio. pr
Page: June 23
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Page: June 24
1374 - Outbreak of St. John's Dance today 1374, was in Aachen, Germany; the populace danced wildly through the streets, screaming of visions and hallucinations, and even continued to writhe and twist after they were too exhausted to stand. previous day -
Page: June 25
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Page: June 26
  1910 - Roy J. Plunkett born today 1910 was the chemist who accidentally invented Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene) on April 6, 1938. previous day - next day
Page: June 27
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Page: June 28
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Page: June 29
1315 - Raymundus Lullus, died today 1315, a botanist and alchemist who was the first to discover the chemical group later called ether. 1938 - David Barker, born today 1938  an English physician and epidemiologist and originator of the Barker Hypothesis t
Page: June 3
2009 - William (Bill) Witherup, died today 2009, poet, activist, essayist, and author. 2002 - Alice Mary Stewart died today 2002, a British physician and epidemiologist specializing in social medicine and the effects of radiation on health. Her study of r
Page: June 30
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Page: June 4
1916 - Gaylord Anton Nelson was born  today 1916 was a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin who called for the establishment of Earth Day on April 22, 1970. previous day - next day
Page: June 5
1828 - Friedrich Gaedcke born today 1828, a German chemist. He was first to isolate Cocaine in 1855 from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca, originally from Peru and Bolivia. 1986 - After taking an Excedrin capsule laced with Cyanide a 52-year old man in Aub
Page: June 6
2009 - Luke Cole, died today in Uganda, an early leader in the environmental justice movement. previous day - next day
Page: June 7
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Page: June 8
1997 - Karen E. Wetterhahn, died today 1997, Dartmouth College professor and toxic chemical specialist was fatally poisoned by dimethylmercury. previous day - next day
Page: June 9
1980 - Rachel Carson today 1980, was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. previous day - next day
Page: Jābir ibn Hayyān
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (Arabic: جابر بن حیان‎) (born c. 721 in Tus, Persia; died c. 815 in Kufa, Iraq) was a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer,

K

Page: K-12 Teaching Resources
Non-Governmental Organizations The Environmental Education Association of Washington (EEAW): A dynamic, non-profit organization comprised of teachers, agency people, business representatives and community educators dedicated to offering and promoting effe
Page: K-Z
Toxicology Glossary of Terms A-J - #K - #L - #M - #N - #O - #P - #Q - #R #S - #T - #U - #V - #W - #X - #Y - #Z A-J K L lachrymator: See lacrimator (#IUPAC) lacrimator: Substance that irritates the eyes and causes the production of tears or increases the f
Page: Kaitlin Mallory
Kaitlin is a senior at Tulane University in New Orleans studying Political Science and Environmental Studies. During the summer months she resides in her home state of Washington, where she spends much of her time enjoying her friends, family, and the out
Page: Karen McDonell
Page: Karen Wetterhahn
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview In 1996, Dartmouth College professor and toxic chemical specialist Dr. Karen E. Wetterhahn was fatally poisoned by dimethylmercury, she died June 8, 1997. The compound, which was bein
Page: Katarina Lah
Katarina Lah holds a Bachelor's degree in Biotechnology and graduated from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, from where she moved a year ago. She did a one-year research project on endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plants at the National I
Page: Kathleen Duke
Kathleen Duke is a Wiki maven and self-employed software consultant. She holds a B.A. in English and a J.D., but counts her two years of cancer treatment as her most significant educational feat. She has a morbid fascination with oncology, genetics, and n
Page: Kathleen Flenniken
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Nancy Dickeman Kathleen Flenniken Kathleen Flenniken's first book, Famous (University of Nebraska, 2006), won the Prairie Schooner Book Prize and was named an ALA Notable Book and a Washington State Book Award
Page: Kent Slowinski
Background Kent Slowinski is a former member of the Spring Valley Restoration Advisory Board dealing with the 16 year cleanup of chemical munitions and contamination from World War I activities at the American University Experiment Station, now known as t
Page: Kentucky Train Collision on 1-14-07
Overview On January 14, 2007 four runaway rail cars crashed into two parked cars that resulted in an explosion that released about 30,000 gallons of butyl acetate. The butyl acetate was said to have burnt away completely, but residents nearby were either
Page: Kenya mountain viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Montatheris hindii Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: East Africa, Aberdare R
Page: Kevin Keane
Member of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology
Page: Kiddie Kollege Day Care
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Kiddie Kollege Day Care Center was closed on July 28, 2006 after the discovery of mercury. The site was an old thermometer manufacturing facility. 9 staff and 60 children were evaluat
Page: Kieran O'Brien
Background Kieran graduated from the University of Michigan with a B.A. in International Development and Social Justice and a minor in French and Francophone Studies. She plans to attend graduate school beginning fall 2010 to pursue a Master's of Public H
Page: King brownsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Pseudechis australis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Anticoagulants, myotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southenr
Page: King cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Ophiophagus hannah Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic nuerotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Philippines,
Page: King Louis XIV
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview King Louis XIV (September 5, 1638 - September 1, 1715) passed a royal decree in 1682 that permitted apothecaries to sell arsenic or poisonous substances only to persons known to them.
Page: Kleen Energy Systems plant explosion
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Kleen Energy Systems power station in Middletown, Connecticut, exploded February 7, 2010. The plant had been under construction and was scheduled to start supplying energy in June 2
Page: Korean Translation of Milestones of Toxicology
Korean Translation of Milestones of Toxicology 역사 속 교훈: 독성학의 주요 이정표 The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into Korean by Michael Kang in January 2013. To open or download the Korean Milestone poster click HERE (as pdf). Abstract in Korean bel
Page: Kristin L. Callahan
Kristin L. Callahan, MS Risk Assessor RIDOLFI Inc. Engineers and Scientists Concerned with the Earth Overview Kristin L. Callahan, currently a Risk Assessor for RIDOLFI Inc. in Seattle, Washington, specializes in Superfund site investigation, exposure and

L

Page: La Guerra Química: Una Realidad Inconcebible
Overview The modern era of chemical weaponry began in the First World War and advances in synthetic chemistry led to the development of increasingly potent compounds such as Nerve Agents and VX. Chemical weaponry stockpiling was an integral part of the ar
Page: Lac-Mégantic derailment
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Lac-Mégantic oil train derailment occurred July 6, 2013 in the town of Lac-Mégantic, Quebec, Canada.  The freight train carrying Bakken formation crude oil ran away and derailed,
Page: Lake Coeur d'Alene
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Lake Coeur d'Alene is a natural lake in the Idaho Panhandle, with its northern end located in the city of Coeur d'Alene.   On January 18, 2011 an estimated 352,000 pounds of lead wash
Page: Lake Lenore
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On January 13, 1947, the US War Assets Administration, disposed of drums of sodium into Lake Lenore, an alkaline lake in the Grand Coulee area of eastern Washington State (near Spokan
Page: Lake Nyos
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Situated in Cameroon, Lake Nyos is a carbon-dioxide saturated lake as a result of the magma which lies beneath it. In 1986, the lake released a horrific amount of carbon dioxide and s
Page: Lake Taal seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Hydrophis semperi Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins, postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: La
Page: Lambda-Cyhalothrin
Lead Editor: Dan Becker Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Lambda cyhalothrin, an insecticide, belongs to the pyrethroid chemical class of pesticides. It was registered with the EPA in 1988. Because of its close similarities to cyhalothrin, studies are
Page: Lataste's viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Vipera latastei Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probably Procoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Spain, Portugal,
Page: laudenum
Just the facts Physical Information Name: Laudenum Use: analgesic, pain releiver, Source: Opium Recommended daily intake: Absorption: metablozied in brain, liver, and kidney Regulatory facts: see below General facts: Environmental: Recommendations:
Page: Law - Environmental
Environmental Law Schools Lewis & Clark Law School, Environmental Law & Natural Resources Law Program is an extraordinary place to study environmental law and natural resources law. Frequently ranked the #1 environmental law program in the nation by U.S.
Page: Laws and Regulation
Toxipedia is working to expand this section. If you have interest or expertise in policies pertaining to toxic chemicals, please contribute by writing or editing a page! Photo: Fourth meeting of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC),
Page: Lead
Author: Steven G. Gilbert Introduction In the 2nd century BCE, Dioscorides noted, "Lead makes the mind give way." In modern times, lead has been heavily used in paint and as a gasoline additive. Even low levels of lead exposure cause subtle brain damage i
Page: Lead - Additional Resources
European, Asian, and International Agencies International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (accessed: 27 June 2006). "The two main roles of the IPCS are to establish the scientific health and environmental risk assessment basis for safe use of chemical
Page: Lead - Recommendation and Conclusions
The developing nervous system of children is by far the most sensitive to lead exposure. Because of a child's small size and greater absorption of lead, even a very low level of exposure results in a high dose of lead. The developing nervous system is exq
Page: Lead - References
Bellinger, D. C.: "Neurological and behavioral consequences of childhood lead exposure." PLoS Med 2008, 5, e115. Gilbert SG. and Weiss B. "A Rationale for Lowering the Blood Lead Action Level From 10 to 2 μg/dL." Neurotoxicology. 27(5), September 2006, pp
Page: Lead by David Pratt
David Pratt MPH Candidate- Touro University California History of Lead Lead has the highest concentration of any heavy metal found within the composition of the earth’s crust (Tong, 2000). Environmental exposure to lead has been relatively low throughout
Page: Lead Case Studies
Taking Lead Home (1998) In 1998 a California mother requested a blood lead level determination for her 18-month-old child (MMWR, 2001). The result was a blood lead level (BLL) of 26 μg/dL, which was well above the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) 10 μg/
Page: Lead Paint in Washington
Lead Paint in Washington Mark Crippen and Cristina Haworth Presentation Lead Powerpoint Relevant materials Lead in the News Strong link between crime, lead exposure in children References Center for Disease Control and Prevention Toxipedia Understanding L
Page: Leadpedia
Leadpedia - Information to prevent lead exposure A common site on the health effects and prevention of lead exposure. Overview In the 2nd century BCE, Dioscorides noted, "Lead makes the mind give way." In modern times, lead was heavily used in paint and a
Page: Leah Tait
Overview Leah Tait is a senior attending the University of Michigan, where she studies Cellular and Molecular Biology. She joined Toxipedia to expand her interests in toxicology and public health. Her academic interests include toxicology, laboratory anim
Page: Leah Woodke
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Leah Woodke Overview Leah Woodke, President, Senior Partner, How Consultants A North Dakota native, Leah Woodke has been in the field of education for over 20 years. After graduating with a BS degree in Element
Page: Learning Disabilities
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview "Given established scientific knowledge, protecting children from neurotoxic exposures from the earliest stages of fetal development is clearly an essential public health measure. By
Page: Learning from Nature
Relevant content on Toxipedia: Biomimicry, Green Chemistry   “I don’t believe in magic. I believe in the sun and the stars, the water, the tides, the floods, the owls, the hawks flying, the river running, the wind talking. They’re measurements. They tell
Page: Leo Kanner
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Leo Kanner (June 13, 1894 - April 4, 1981) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and physician known for his work related to autism. Biography Kanner was born in Klekotow, Austria. He
Page: Leo Sternbach
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dr. Leo Henryk Sternbach (May 7, 1908 - September 28, 2005) was a Polish-Jewish chemist who is credited with inventing the benzodiazepine, a class of tranquilizers including librium a
Page: Leon Golberg
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Leon Golberg (August 22, 1915 - May 3, 1987) was born in Limassol, Cyprus, the son of a jeweler. Globerg synthesized Diethylstilbestrol (DES) in early 1938 as a graduate student of Si
Page: Leon Goldberg: Creator of DES (Diethylstilbestrol)
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Leona Woods
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Leona Woods (also Leona Marshall Libby) born August 9, 1919 and died November 10, 1986 was a brilliant American physicists who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first ato
Page: Leonard Rifas
Leonard Rifas is an author, scholar, and teacher of educational comics as well as founder of EduComics. Reach Leonard at rifas@earthlink.net. Learn more about Leonard Rifas in an interview and part two about his work. Leonard Rifas vita as a comic scholar
Page: Leonardo da Vinci
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 - May 2, 1519) was a multi-talented Italian Renaissance Roman Catholic polymath: architect, anatomist, sculptor, engineer, inventor, geo
Page: Leonardo da Vinci (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Leonardo Di ser Piero da Vinci (15 de abril de 1452 - 2 de maio de 1519) foi um italiano de multitalentos do renascimento Católico Romano, que exerceu as ações de: arquiteto, anatomista, esc
Page: Leonardo da Vinci Spanish
Información General Leonardo da Vinci (Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci) fue un pintor italiano nativo de Florencia. Notable polímata del Renacimiento italiano (a la vez anatomista, arquitecto, artista, botánico, científico, escritor, escultor, filósofo, in
Page: Leptophos
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Leptophos is a highly toxic organophosphate pesticide that is no longer registered for use in the United States and its health effects
Page: Lesser black whipsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Demansia vestigiata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Coagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southern New Guinea and n
Page: Lessons Learned
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well a
Page: Levant viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Macrovipera lebetina Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range:Afghani
Page: Lewis Carroll
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (January 27, 1832 - January 14, 1898), better known by the pseudonym Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, Anglican deacon and a photographer. Hi
Page: Ley de Acto Fiscal de la Marihuana 1937
Información General En los Estados Unidos, la Ley de Impuesto sobre la Marihuana 1937, pub. 238, 75 Congreso, 50 Stat. 551 (2 de agosto de 1937), fue un proyecto de ley importante en el camino que conducía a la criminalización del cannabis. Fue introducid
Page: Ley de Arsénico 1851
Información General La Ley de arsénico (14 & 15 Vict c 13) fue una ley del Parlamento aprobada por el Parlamento del Reino Unido en 1851, durante el reinado de la reina Victoria. El arsénico era en ese entonces ampliamente utilizado como pigmento y en los
Page: Ley de Pureza de Alimentos y Medicamentos 1906
Información General La Ley de Pureza de Alimento y Medicinas fue promulgada el 30 de junio de 1906, siendo clave en la legislación de la Era progresista en los Estados Unidos , siendo firmada por el presidente Theodore Roosevelt, el mismo día que la “Ley
Page: Ley de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional de 1970
Información General The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. It was created by Congress of the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by Presi
Page: Ley seca en Los Estados Unidos
Información General La Ley Seca, entendida como la prohibición de vender bebidas alcohólicas, estuvo vigente en los Estados Unidos entre 1920 y 1933. Fue establecida por la Enmienda XVIII a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos y derogada por la Enmienda
Page: Libby, Montana
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview A Vermiculite mine in Libby, Montana operated by the W.R. Grace and Company caused deaths and illnesses to several hundred people for the last half century as it released deadly Asbes
Page: Libraries of the World
Libraries of the World    List of libraries worth visiting  John Rylands Library, Manchester, England Boston Public Library, Boston, Mass., USA Boston Athenaeum, Boston, Mass., USA New York Public Library, New York, New York, USA       References        
Page: Linus Carl Pauling
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 - August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history and rank
Page: Linus Carl Pauling - Scientist for the Ages
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Lise Meitner
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Lise Meitner (November 7, 1878 – October 27, 1968) was an Austrian physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.  Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fis
Page: Lissa Jones
Background Lissa Jones is a Senior at San Jose State University, where she's majoring in English with a focus on publishing. Her interest in public and environmental wellbeing lead her to Toxipedia. Lissa can be reached at sleepstodream@gmail.com. Pages W
Page: List of FIHRI Board Members
FIHRI Board Members (Aug 15, 2010) Chuck Cornett Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin-Platteville Raquel Crider Ph.D. Retired Public Health Service Officer Renee Dufault Executive Director of FIHRI Steven G. Gilbert Director, Institute of Neurotox
Page: Lista de Substâncias Químicas
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} PÁGINA EM CONSTRUÇÃO! Os links para as páginas em português serão inseridos à medida que forem traduzidos. Caso você não encontre o que está procurando na Toxipedia, existe a possibilidade de contribuir
Page: Lista de Sustancias Químicas
Si no encuentra lo que necesita, por favor intente el cuadro de búsqueda arriba.  If Toxipedia doesn't have a page for your chemical, we offer a list of Chemical Toxicity Databases for further research. Please also consider contributing content!     NOTA:
Page: Listerine
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert   Overview Listerine was first formulated by Dr. Joseph Lawrence and Jordan Wheat Lambert in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1879 as surgical antiseptic, it was given to dentists for oral care in 1895 a
Page: Lizards
Page: Local Issues (Washington State)
This page serves as an entry point to resources about environmental health issues in Washington State. Topic Pages on Toxipedia Advocacy Organizations, Map and Directory - see N. America page for WA organizations Aquatic Farming (page under development) B
Page: London Great Smog
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview London was overwhelmed by a great smog, also referred to as the Big Smoke, starting on December 5, 1952, and lasting until December 9, 1952. This catastrophic event caused or advanced
Page: Los Alfaques disaster
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert   The Los Alfaques disaster was a road accident and tanker explosion which occurred on 11 July 1978 in Alcanar, near Tarragona, in Spain. The tanker truck was loaded with 23 tons of highly flamm
Page: Louis Alexander Slotin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview     Louis Alexander Slotin (December 1, 1910 – May 30, 1946) was a Canadian physicist and chemist who worked on the Manhattan Project. On 21 May 1946, Slotin was conducting a demonstr
Page: Louis Lewin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Louis Lewin (November 9, 1850 - December 1, 1929) was a German pharmacologist. In 1886, he published the first methodical analysis of the Peyote cactus. A German scientist, Lewin took
Page: Louis Lewin (Spanish)
Información General Louis Lewin (9 noviembre 1850 - 1 diciembre 1929) fue un farmacólogo alemán. En 1886, él publicó la primera análisis metódico de peyote.  Un científico alemán, Lewin asumió la tarea de clasificar las drogas y las plantas de acuerdo a s
Page: Louis Pasteur
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Louis Pasteur December 27, 1822 - September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist born in Dole. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevent
Page: Louis Pasteur and the Rabies Vaccine: July 6, 1886
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward  A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental hea
Page: Louisville Charter
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert The Charter The Louisville Charter for Safer Chemicals A Platform for Creating a Safe and Healthy Environment through Innovation Fundamental reform to current chemical laws is necessary to pro
Page: Love Canal - Historical Perspective
Love Canal and the Love Canal Archive by Frederick Stoss - Arts & Sciences Libraries, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, which became the subject of national and international attention, contr
Page: Love Canal Archives (University at Buffalo, UB Libraries, Special Collections)
Love Canal {color:black}Archives (University at{color} Buffalo{color:black}Libraries, Special Collections){color} {color:black}[http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/specialcollections/lovecanal/index.html]{color} {color:black}The State University of New Y
Page: Love Canal Disaster
Overview From 1942 to 1953 a landfill in the Niagara Falls area known was the love canal, was contaminated by Hooker Chemical and then sold to the city after being covered up by layers of dirt. The city then allowed homes and schools to be built over the
Page: Lowland copperhead
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Austrelaps superbus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southeast A
Page: Lowland swamp viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Proatheris superciliaris Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: East Africa, Lake
Page: LSD
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 in the Sandoz Laboratories (now Novartis). In 1943 Abby Hofmann, a prominent Swiss scientist at Sandoz Labo
Page: LSD: Big Effects at Small Doses, but Exposure Is Our Choice
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Lucio Cornelio Sila
Información General Lucio Cornelio Sila Félix (Latín: Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix; Roma, 138 a. C. - Puteoli, 78 a. C.), ocupado numerosos cargos en Roma, incluyendo General y más tarde dictador, durante y después del reinado de Marco. Él era un general
Page: Lucio Costa
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Lucio Costa Overview Lucio Costa is Professor, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington. (UW web site). The general area of research in Dr. Costa's laboratory is neurotoxicology.
Page: Luis XIV de Francia 1682
Overview El rey Luis XIV (05 de septiembre de 1638 - 1 de septiembre, 1715) aprobó un real decreto en 1682 que los boticarios autorizados a vender arsénico o sustancias venenosas sólo a las personas que tengan conocimiento. Enlaces externos Luis XVI de Fr
Page: Luke Cole
Overview  From his New York Times Obituary: June 6, 2009 - "Luke Cole, an early leader of the environmental justice movement, which holds that many minority neighborhoods have become toxic dumping grounds because their residents are poor and powerless, di

M

Page: m-Methoxybenzaldehyde
See p-Anisaldehyde
Page: M34 Bomb
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The M34 cluster bomb was first tested by the Air force and Army Chemical Corps in 1954. The 1,000 pound bomb contained 76 Sarin-filled bomblets that, upon deployment a parachute opene
Page: M55
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The M55 was developed in the early 1960s to deliver nerve agents, Sarin and VX. It was six feet long and weighed fifty0five pounds with a war-head capapble of being filled with five q
Page: MacClelland's coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Sinomicrurus macclellandi Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Possible myotoxins and neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic ra
Page: MacMahon's viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Eristicophis macmahonii Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Presynaptic neurotoxins, Procoagulants Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic
Page: Magnesium
Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.3050 and common oxidation number +2. Magnesium, an alkaline earth metal, is the ninth most abundant element in the universe by mass. The commonness of magnesium is rela
Page: Mahatma Gandhi
Quotes Gandhi on Nonviolence - "Nonviolence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man." "Nonviolence is the law of the human race and is infinitely greater tha
Page: Maimónides
Información General Moshé ben Maimón (30 Marzo, 1135 Córdoba, España - 13 de diciembre de 1204 Fostat, Egipto), ue el médico, rabino y teólogo judío más célebre en España y en Egipto en el siglo XII y sus escritos constituyen la base de la fe ortodoxa jud
Page: Malabar pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Trimeresurus malabaricus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southwestern India, wes
Page: Malathion
Lead author: Allison Camp Overview Malathion is an organophosphate (OP) insecticide that is a neurotoxin.   It was first registered in 1956, and remains in use.  Although malathion has a lower level of toxicity to humans than many other OP pesticides, it
Page: Malayan pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: Malaysia
Government Agencies Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industries (Kementerian Pertanian dan Agro-Industri) Ministry of Domestic Trade (Kementerian Perdagangan Dalam Negeri dan Hal Ehwal Pengguna) Ministry of Health Malaysia (Kementerian Kesihatan Mal
Page: male genitourinary embryology
-->MALE EMBRYOLOGY Gonads             If there is an XY sex chromosomal karyotype, the Y chromosome encodes the testis-determining factor (TDF) on its short arm.  The best known gene in the TDF gene is SRY, the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome.
Page: Mangshan pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Zhaoermia mangshanensis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Mangshan, Nan Ling mount
Page: Manhattan Project
Overview The Manhattan Project was a project by the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada to develop the first nuclear weapon (atomic bomb) during World War II. The project is formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), which refers
Page: Mapping the Environment
Mapping Environmental Issues Contents #text Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Clean up the World Map UNEP - interactive map
Page: Marcellin Berthelot
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Marcellin (or Marcelin) Pierre Eugène Berthelot (October 25, 1827 - March 18, 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the Thomsen-Berthelot principle of thermochemistry. H
Page: March 1
1896 - Henri Becquerel French physicist, Nobel laureate, discovered radioactivity today 1896. 1954 - Nuclear testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, was detonated today 1954 on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radio
Page: March 10
1805 - Felice Fontana, died today 1805 an Italian physicist who discovered the water gas shift reaction in 1780, also credited with launching modern toxicology and investigating the human eye. previous day - next day
Page: March 11
2011 - The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011 in Japan was the largest nuclear incident since the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. previous day - next day
Page: March 12
1507 - Cesare Borgia died today 1507, Spanish-Italian condottiero, lord, and cardinal. The Borgias were known Italian assassins who used arsenic to poison people for both political and monetary gain during the 15th and 16th centuries. 1853 - Mathieu Orfil
Page: March 13
2006 - Six men in London are hospitalized today 2006 during trials of the drug TGN1412, which raised concerns about human drug trials. 1968 - VX Nerve gas accident today 1968 at Skull Valley, Utah, (Dugway Proving Ground). 1733 - Joseph Priestley, born to
Page: March 14
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Page: March 15
1813 - John Snow born today 1813 was a British physician is considered to be one of the fathers of epidemiology, because of his work in tracing the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, England, in 1854. previous day - next day
Page: March 16
1988 - Halabja Poison Gas Attack: The Kurdish town of Halabja in Iraq was attacked today 1988 with a mix of poison gas and nerve agents and thousands of people were killed. previous day - next day
Page: March 17
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Page: March 18
1907 - Marcellin Berthelot, died today 1907, one of the greatest chemists of all time, one of the first to produce organic compounds synthetically. 1937 - New London School explosion occurred today 1937, when a natural gas leak caused an explosion, destro
Page: March 19
1883 - Norman Haworth, born today 1883, British chemist, received the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his work on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and carbohydrate structures. 1860 - William Jennings Bryan, born today 1860, chief proponent of the Harrison Narcotics Tax
Page: March 2
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Page: March 20
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Page: March 2010 Newsletter
The first few months of 2010 have brought some exciting developments to Toxipedia. We have created a new section on the site where you will find information and resources on Toxic Chemicals in Household Products. In addition, we are excited to announce th
Page: March 21
2000 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled today 2000 that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lacks the authority to regulate tobacco. previous day - next day
Page: March 22
1832 - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe died today 1832 was a German writer, artist, and politician wrote literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and color. previous day - next day
Page: March 23
2005 - Texas City Refinery today 2005, a fire and explosion occurred at BP's in Texas City, Texas, killing 15 workers and injuring more than 170 others. 1995 - Russell Earl Marker died today 1995 eccentric American chemist who invented the octane rating s
Page: March 24
1993 John Richard Hersey died today 1993 wrote an account of the aftermath of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, that was adjudged the finest piece of American journalism of the 20th century by a 36-member panel associated with New York Universi
Page: March 25
2014 - Jonathan Schell died today 2014, American author, campaigned against nuclear weapons.  Published in 1982 as The Fate of the Earth, instrumental in raising public awareness about the dangers of the nuclear arms race.  1911 - The Triangle Shirtwaist
Page: March 26
1953 - Jonas Salk today 1953 announced his polio vaccine.  He did not patten the vaccine "There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?".  1975 - The Biological Weapons Convention entered into force today 1975 - Convention on the Prohibition of the Develo
Page: March 27
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Page: March 28
1979 - The Three Mile Island Radioactive Leak occurred today 1979 when a cooling malfunction caused a partial meltdown of the reactor core, 10 miles southeast of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA. previous day - next day
Page: March 29
1927 - John Robert Vane, born today 1927 an English pharmacologist, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on Aspirin. 2004 - The Republic of Ireland today 2004 became the first country in the world to ban smoking in all workplace
Page: March 3
1938 - Oil was discovered today 1938 in Saudi Arabia. previous day - next day
Page: March 30
1135 - Moses Maimonides born today 1135, Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher who wrote the famous Treatise on Poisons and Their Antidotes. 1842 - Anesthesia was used for the first time today 1842 in an operation by Dr. Crawford Long. 1911 - Ellen Hen
Page: March 31
- Eben McBurney Byers was died today 1932 from multiple radiation-induced cancers after consuming a popular patent medicine made from Radium dissolved in water. previous day - next day
Page: March 4
1810 - Mercury salvage today 1810, health effects discovered when two British ships, HMS Triumph and HMS Phipps, salvaged a large load of elemental mercury from a wrecked Spanish vessel near Cadiz, Spain. 1927 - Ira Remsen, died today 1927, who discovered
Page: March 5
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Page: March 6
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Page: March 7
1892 -  Norman McAlister Gregg, born today 1892 an Australian ophthalmologist, discovered that rubella suffered by a pregnant woman could cause birth defects in her child (congenital rubella syndrome).   previous day - next day
Page: March 8
1879 - Otto Hahn born today 1879, a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery of nuclear fission. He is regarded as one of the most significant chemists of all t
Page: March 9
2014 - Joseph Lawrence Sax died today 2014 an environmental law professor, known for developing the public trust doctrine. previous day - next day
Page: March Newsletter
A Toxipedia Update  -  March 2009 Featured Quote "I think the environment should be put in the category of our national security. Defense of our resources is just as important as defense abroad. Otherwise what is there to defend?" Robert Redford March Upd
Page: Marcia Zimmerman
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Marcia Zimmerman Overview Marcia Zimmerman Biography 2011 Marcia Zimmerman is an internationally recognized author or health and nutrition books, articles, and presentations. Her book topics have included nutri
Page: MARE CLEAN 200
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Maria M. Williams
Maria M. Williams, editor, joined Toxipedia in 2009. Maria writes, recruits, and edits content for Toxipedia and assists with site management. Her recent articles include Environmental Health Effects of Marijuana Cultivation, Toxic Chemicals in Food Packa
Page: Maria Williams
Editor for Healthy World Theater. Maria Williams has a Masters degree in English from Western Washington University.
Page: Marie Curie
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Marie Curie was born Maria Skodowska in Warsaw, Russian-occupied Poland on November 7, 1867 and died July 4, 1934, in Sancellemoz, France. A Polish-French physicist and chemist, she w
Page: Marijuana
Author: Aleksandra Buha Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Overview Marijuana is derived from the Indian hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, a member of the Cannabaceae family. All types of cannabis strains - both male and female plants - produce THC, the active ing
Page: Marijuana Tax Act of 1937
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, Pub. 238, 75th Congress, 50 Stat. 551 (August 2, 1937), was a significant bill on the path that led to the criminalization of cannabi
Page: Mark J Donohue
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Mark Donohue   Mark holds a B.S. in Telecommunications with a graduate level minor in Instructional Technologies from the University of Oregon. Currently, Mark is involved in the study of Multiple Chemical Sens
Page: Martha passenger pigeon
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Passenger pigeon Martha (c.1885—September 1, 1914) was the last known living passenger pigeon; she was named "Martha" in honor of the first First Lady Martha Washington.  Once very co
Page: Martin Luther King
Overview Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia and assinated April 4, 1968, on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. Biography "I refuse to accept the cynical notion that nation after nation must spira
Page: Martin Luther King Spanish
Martin Luther King, Jr. (Atlanta, 15 de enero de 1929 – Memphis, 4 de abril de 1968) fue un pastor estadounidense de la iglesia bautista1 que desarrolló una labor crucial en Estados Unidos al frente del Movimiento por los derechos civiles para los afroame
Page: Massasauga
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Sistrurus catenatus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins, myotoxins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Ant
Page: Massive Molasses Spill in Honolulu harbor
General Information  Some 233,000 gallons of molasses spilled from a leaky pipe Sept. 9 as the sugary substance was moved from storage tanks to ships sailing to California. It happened in an industrial area west of downtown where Matson loads molasses and
Page: Master Home Environmentalist (MHE) Program
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Aileen Gagney Overview The Master Home Environmentalist© (MHE©) Program supported by ALAW is an innovative approach to addressing issues of indoor pollution that can damage health and the environment. It is eff
Page: Mateo Orfila
Información General Mateu Orfila (Mateu Josep Bonaventura Orfila i Rotger) (24 abril 1787 a 12 marzo 1853) fue un toxicólogo de origen español y un químico. Fundador de la ciencia de la toxicología. Educado en París, Orfila llegó a ser muy competente en l
Page: Mathieu J. B. Orfila
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (April 24, 1787 - March 12, 1853) was a Spanish-born toxicologist and chemist and the founder of the science of toxicology. Educated in Paris, Orfila
Page: Matt Pamuku
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Matt Pamuku Overview CEO Matt is a veteran entrepreneur having spent time on both sides of the R&D bench. After running bioanalytical core facilities at Mass General Hospital and Harvard University, Matt joined
Page: Matthew J. Geraci
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Matthew J. Geraci Overview Matthew J. Geraci, PharmD, EOD hails from Humble, Texas. He is an Eagle Scout and a 1994 West Point graduate with a Baccalaureate of Science in physics and nuclear engineering. Upon g
Page: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Mauricio was born and raised in Brazil. As a young student has always enjoyed chemistry, biology and physics, leading him to the pharmacy school at Ribeirão Preto, in Universidade de São Paulo. During h
Page: May 1
980 - Avicenna c. 980 – June 1037 (May 1, 980) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. His wrote The Book of Healing – a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon
Page: May 10
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Page: May 11
2013 - Joseph Farman died today 2013 a British geophysicist who published the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica on May 16, 1985. previous day - next day
Page: May 12
1994 - Roy J. Plunkett died today 1994 was the chemist who accidentally invented Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene) on April 6, 1938. previous day - next day
Page: May 13
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Page: May 14
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Page: May 15
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Page: May 16
1985 - Joseph Farman today 1985 a British geophysicist published the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica. previous day - next day
Page: May 17
1949 - William John Aloysius Bailey died today 1949 promoted the use of radioactive radium as a cure for coughs, flu, and other common ailments.   2004 - Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, entered into force today 2004, with ratificati
Page: May 18
1808 - Clergyman Rev Elijah Craig died today 1808 produced Whiskey distilled from maize in Bourbon County, Kentucky. 1889 - Thomas Midgley, Jr. born today 1889, an American chemist who developed the tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) additive for gasoline and chlorof
Page: May 19
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Page: May 2
1519 - Leonardo da Vinci died today 1519 - polymath: architect, anatomist, sculptor, engineer, inventor, geometer, musician and painter. previous day - next day
Page: May 20
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Page: May 2010 Newsletter
We hope this newsletter find you all well and ready to enjoy the beginning of summer. This past month has been quite busy at Toxipedia with research and new articles on a variety of topics. Below you will find some information on our recent work and links
Page: May 21
1786 - Carl Wilhelm Scheele, died today 1786, who discovered elements including oxygen, barium, chlorine, and manganese. previous day - next day
Page: May 22
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Page: May 23
2001 - Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, was adopted today 2001. previous day - next day
Page: May 24
2010 - The Allen Institute for Brain Science launched today 2010 the Allen Human Brain Atlas, a publicly available online atlas charting genes at work throughout the human brain. previous day - next day
Page: May 25
1884 - William John Aloysius Bailey born today 1884, promoted the use of radioactive radium as a cure for coughs, flu, and other common ailments.   previous day - next day
Page: May 26
1888 - Ascanio Sobrero, died today 1888, an Italian chemist who discovered nitroglycerin, a powerful explosive and vasodilator. previous day - next day
Page: May 27
1907- Rachel Louise Carson born today 1907, an American marine biologist whose book Silent Spring is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. 1907 - An outbreak of Bubonic plague began today 1907 in San Francisco, California.
Page: May 28
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Page: May 29
1886 - Chemist John Pemberton born today 1886 placed his first advertisement for Coca-Cola; the ad appeared in the Atlanta Journal. 2006 - The Sidoarjo mud flow or Lapindo mud, in the subdistrict of Porong, Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia that has been o
Page: May 3
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Page: May 30
1946 - Louis Alexander Slotin died today 1946 Canadian physicist and chemist who worked on the Manhattan Project. On 21 May 1946, Slotin was conducting a demonstration when he accidentally initiated a fission reaction, which released a burst of hard radia
Page: May 31
1889 - The Johnstown Flood occurred today 1889, the result of the failure of the South Fork Dam released 20 million tons of water and killed over 2,200 people. previous day - next day
Page: May 4
1600 - Jean Nicot, died today 1600, was a French diplomat and scholar, brought the Tobacco plant to Europe and it was named after him as well as Nicotine. previous day - next day
Page: May 5
1925 - On this date, John Scopes, a teacher, in Dayton, Tenn., was arrested for teaching evolution. 1821- Napoleon Bonaparte died today 1821 while in exile on the island of Saint Helena, perhaps by arsenic poisoning. previous day - next day
Page: May 6
1830 - Abraham Jacobi, born today 1830, considered the father of pediatrics, opened the first children's clinic in the United States. 1937 - Hindenburg Disaster, today 1937, the hydrogen-filled German dirigible, burned and crashed in Lakehurst, N.J., kill
Page: May 7
1908 - Leo Henryk Sternbach born today 1908, a Polish-Jewish chemist credited with inventing the benzodiazepine, a class of tranquilizers including librium and valium. previous day - next day
Page: May 8
1794 - Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier guillotined today 1794, the "father of modern chemistry", a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He found and termed both oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), helped construct the metric sy
Page: May 9
1860 - William Francis Kemmler born today 1860 of Buffalo, New York, was the first person in the world to be executed using an electric chair August 6, 1890. previous day - next day
Page: May Newsletter
Quote of the Month: "The greatest wealth is health." Virgil Call for Contributors Create a Page Edit Pages Contributing an Editorial Interning at Toxipedia (Undergrad and graduate students) University Partnerships Toxipedia Update - May 2009 It has been a
Page: MCPA
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview MCPA is an herbicide that was registered with the EPA in 1973. MCPA acid is the parent chemical to other chemical formulations such as MCPA dimethylamine salt, MCPA sodium salt, and MCPA
Page: Meat Production and Environmental Health
Overview This page provides resources on the relationship between meat production and global environmental health. In 2006, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that the meat industry is responsible for 18% of global greenhouse gas emissi
Page: Mecoprop-p
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Mecoprop, commonly known as MCPP, is a chlorophenoxy herbicide that was registered in 1960s. This initial formulation consisted of two chemical isomers in equal proportion, only one of w
Page: Medpedia Topics of Interest for Toxipedia
Page: Meg Beagle
Overview Meg Beagle is a prolific limerick writer - see her work at Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form Articles Written by XXX Meg's limericks
Page: Meg K. Rayford
Meg Rayford is a Development Associate with Toxipedia.  She holds an Master of Science in Marketing Management and Public Relations from the University of Maryland-UC, and a Bachelor's degree in Psychology and Women's Studies from the University of Massac
Page: Megatons to Megawatts Program
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Megatons to Megawatts Program, also called the United States-Russia Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement with the official name of the program is the "Agreement between the
Page: Melamine
Lead Authors: Professor Jack Vanden Heuvel and his Fall 2008 Veterinary Biology Seminar at Pennsylvania State University Lead Editor: Steven G. Gilbert Chemical Description Melamine (CAS No. 108-78-1) is an organic base and a trimer of cyanamide, with a 1
Page: Melamine Risk Assessment
Current Events  EFSA Statement Presentation
Page: Mercaptans
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Thiols are a organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (-C-SH or R-SH) group (where R represents an alkane, alkene, or other carbon-containing moiety). For exampl
Page: Mercury
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead authors: Steven G. Gilbert and Michelle Gaither Overview There are two forms of mercury: inorganic mercury and organic methylmercury (MeHg). When inorganic mercury evaporates, it is biotransformed into methylmercury th
Page: Mercury - The Tragedy of Minamata Disease
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward  A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental hea
Page: Mercury Cycle
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Structure Retrieved from Environment Canada. The essence of the Mercury Cycle is the evaporation of inorganic Mercury from both natural and man-made sources into the atmosphere where
Page: Mercury Exposure, Nutritional Deficiencies and Metabolic Disruptions May Affect Learning in Children
Abstract Among dietary factors, learning and behavior are influenced not only by nutrients, but also by exposure to toxic food contaminants such as mercury that can disrupt metabolic processes and alter neuronal plasticity. Neurons lacking in plasticity a
Page: Mercury from Chlor-alkali Plants - Measured Concentrations in Food Product Sugar
Abstract Mercury cell chlor-alkali products are used to produce thousands of other products including food ingredients such as citric acid, sodium benzoate, and high fructose corn syrup. High fructose corn syrup is used in food products to enhance shelf l
Page: Mercury in Fish and Cardiovascular Disease
Does mercury exposure from fish consumption increase the risk of cardiovascular disease? Probably.  Depends on how much mercury exposure and dietary selenium levels. In a recent article published by the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers "found
Page: Mercury in the Food Supply
Studies have shown that consumption of certain food ingredients leads to mineral imbalances such as zinc and selenium loss or deficiency (1, 2, 3).   These minerals are essential elements important in disease prevention because they are key factors in pre
Page: Mercury Poisoning in Iraq - 1971
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview During the winter of 1971-1972, pink-colored seed grain coated with a Mercury fungicide was ground into bread and tragically consumed by Iraqis tragically exposing over 40,000 people
Page: Mercury Tragedy at Dartmouth
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert In 1996, Dartmouth College professor and toxic chemical specialist Dr. Karen E. Wetterhahn was fatally poisoned by dimethylmercury, she died June 8, 1987. The compound, which was being used me
Page: Merob Shimele
Add picture insert short author bio more info Articles Written by XXX xxx Articles Edited by XXX
Page: Metaldehyde
Topic editor: Dan Becker Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Common Name: Metaldehyde Chemical Name: 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetraoxylcyclooctane Molecular Weight: 176.20 CAS Registry Numbers: 9002-91-9 (monomeric form),
Page: Metals
Pages on Specific Metals Arsenic Expanded! Cadmium (Cd) Lead (Pb) Expanded! Magnesium (Mg) Mercury (Hg) Plutonium Thallium Uranium Relevant Content on Toxipedia Toxic Chemicals in Household Products Electronic Waste (E-waste) Use of metal compounds as pes
Page: Methamidophos
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Methamidophos is a highly toxic, highly regulated systemic and residual organophosphate insecticide, acaracide, and avicide (#EXTOXNET). Its #Health Effects are consistent with all Or
Page: Methamphetamine
text Contents #text #text #text #text #text #text #text Topic editor: editor name Lead author: author name Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory fa
Page: Methomyl
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Methomyl is a highly toxic carbamate insecticide first registered in 1968 by the EPA as a "Restricted use Pesticide (RUP)" and is used on a wide variety of crops (#EPA and #PAN). It i
Page: Methotrexate: Usage in Chemotherapy
Authors: Haley Felts (April 27, 2015) Overview Cancer is a much discussed topic in the medical world. Despite its popularity, cancer treatments are not well understood to those who don’t work in this field. Chemotherapy is one of the main forms of treatme
Page: Methyl (Organic) Mercury
Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Case Studies Minamata, Japan: Mercury and Fish In the late 1950s the subtle and serious consequences of methyl mercury exposure became evident in Minamata, Japan. Initially, health experts were baffled by early signs of unco
Page: Methyl Bromide
Overview Methyl bromide is a broad spectrum pesticide used in the control of pest insects, nematodes, weeds, pathogens, and rodents. In the U.S., methyl bromide has been used in agriculture, primarily for soil fumigation, as well as for commodity and quar
Page: Methyl Cellosolve
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Methyl Cellosolve Use: solvent CAS No: 109-86-4 Molecular Formula: CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH Synonyms: glycol monomethyl ether; ethylene glycol monomethyl
Page: Methyl cinnamate
Overview Methyl cinnamate is a type of cinnamic acid that occurs naturally in a variety of fruits, spices, and herbs. It is most often used to create flavorings and perfumes.
Page: Methyl Isocyanate
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula C2H3NO, arranged as H3C-N=C=O. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine, and MIC. It was discovered
Page: Methylcyclohexane Methanol Chemical Spill
Author: Cody A. Blankenship (April 26, 2015) Contributed to Toxipedia as part of the University Partnerships Program. Overview The chemical spill in the Elk River in Charlestown, West Virginia on the 9th of January, 2014, mostly involved a chemical called
Page: Methylene Chloride
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Methylene Chloride, also called dichloromethane, is colorless liquid with a mild, chloroform-like odor that is used in many different industrial processes and is not naturally found i
Page: Mevinphos
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Mevinphos Use: organophophate insecticide Trade Names: Apavinphos, CMDP, ENT 22374, Fosdrin, Gesfid, Meniphos, Menite, Mevinox, Mevinphos, OS-2046, PD5,
Page: Mexican cantil
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Agkistrodon bilineatus Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, myotoxins, and haemorrhagins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms:
Page: Mexican horned pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Ophrycus undulatus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants and Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: G
Page: Michael Faraday
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries inc
Page: Michael Kang
Coming soon…
Page: Michelle Gaither
Michelle Gaither currently works for the Pollution Prevention Resource Center and ToxInspect & Co working in the areas of reducing sustainability and toxics reduction. As an environmental scientist and mother of four, Michelle has a keen interest in elimi
Page: Middle Ages
Period Overview The people and events below are in alphabetical order. For a chronological list please see the Toxicology Timeline. The Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages, roughly refers to the time between the fall of Ancient Rome in the 5th Centur
Page: Milestones of Toxicology
Milestones of Toxicology - an interactive poster The Milestones of Toxicology poster was created by Steven G. Gilbert and Toni Hayes in 2006. The poster is interactive: click on a square to get more information. To open or download the clickable Milestone
Page: military-industrial complex
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower used the term in his Farewell Address to the Nation on January 17, 1961: "A vital element in keeping the peace is our military esta
Page: Milksnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Lampropeltis triangulum Basic Information Venom name: Toxins: nonvenomous Manner of intake: bite Geographic range: Southeastern Canada and United States to Andean Colombia and
Page: Milos viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Macrovipera schweizeri Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Milo
Page: Minamata, Japan
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview During the 1950's an acetaldehyde plant in Minamata began dumping heavy metals into the local bay, and ended up poisoning the local aquatic wildlife. After a while, poison symptoms
Page: Minamata, Japón
Información General Durante la década de 1950 una planta de acetaldehído de Minamata comenzó vertido de metales pesados en la bahía local y acabó envenenando la fauna acuática local. Después de un tiempo, los síntomas de envenenamiento han empezado a surg
Page: Mining
Specific Types Gold Mining
Page: Mirex
Topic editor:Maria M. Williams Lead author:Aleksandra Buha Overview The insecticide mirex is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that was commercialized for 16 years (1962-1978) in the southeastern United States to control the imported fire ant. Mirex use became co
Page: Mithradates the Great
Overview Mithradates (or Mithridates VI), rebel ruler of a kingdom on the Black Sea (NE Turkey), who sought a "universal antidote" to make himself immune to assassination by poisoning. After enemies murdered his father with arsenic, young Mithradates bega
Page: Mithridata -- THiS
Issues 1-37 of Mithridata Mithridata Index - Issues 1-37 Mithridata #1 (Jan 1991) Mithridata #2 (Jul 1991) Mithridata #3 (Jan 1992) Mithridata #4 (Jul 1992) Mithridata #5 (Jan 1993) Mithridata #6 (Jul 1993) Mithridata #7 (Jan 1993) Mithridata #8 (Jul 1994
Page: MITHRIDATE - Bulletin d'histoire des poisons
Bulletin d'histoire des poisons 1 - April 2010 Bulletin d'histoire des poisons 2 - July 2010 Bulletin d'histoire des poisons 3 - October 2010 Bulletin d'histoire des poisons 4 - December 2010 Bulletin d'histoire des poisons 5 - April 2011 Bulletin d'histo
Page: Mithridates VI
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI, also known as Mithridates the Great, was the King of Pontus in Asia Minor 120 BC to 63 BC. The ambitious Mithridates engaged Rome three times in thre
Page: Mitrídates VI
Información General Mitrídates VI, (132 a. C. - 63 a. C.), llamado Eupator Dionysius, también conocido como Mitrídates el Grande, rey del Ponto desde el 120 a. C. hasta su muerte, en 63 a. C., en Asia Menor.  Fue uno de los enemigos más formidables y exit
Page: Mitrídates VI (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral   Mitrídates VI, também conhecido como Mitrídates, o Grande, era o Rei de Pontus na Ásia Menor entre 120 a.C. a 63 a.C. O ambicioso Mitrídates iniciou três guerras, chamadas de Guerras Mitri
Page: Modern
Period Overview The people and events below are in alphabetical order. For a chronological list please see the Toxicology Timeline. The Modern Period is generally referred to as the period from the Industrial Revolution of the 18th Century to the end of W
Page: Modern Walls
  Modern Walls Berlin Wall Modern Walls Mexico-US Border Wall Korean Demilitarized Zone Checkpoints: Controlling the Wall   1961-1989: Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. It was constructed by the German Democr
Page: Moisés Maimônides
Coming soon . . .
Page: Monocled cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja kaouthia Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Southeast Asia ma
Page: Monocrotophos
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Properties CAS number: 6923-22-4 IMIS number: 2690 Molecular weight: 233.16 Molecular formula: C 7 H 14 NO 5 P Melting point: 54-55°C Boiling point: 125°C Solubility: s
Page: monosodium methyl arsenate
Monosodium Methyl Arsenate
Page: Monte Vesubio
Información General El monte Vesubio (italiano: Monte Vesuvio; latín: Mons Vesuvius) es un volcán activo del tipo vesubiano situado frente a la bahía de Nápoles y a unos nueve kilómetros de distancia de la ciudad de Nápoles.Tiene una altura máxima de 1.28
Page: Monte Vesúvio (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral O Monte Vesúvio é um vulcão de 1.218 metros, localizado a 14,5 quilômetros do leste de Nápoles, Itália. A montanha foi formada pela colisão das placas tectônicas Africana e da Eurásia. A cal
Page: Montpellier snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Malpolon monspessulanus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Possibly neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Mediterrane
Page: Montreal Protocol - Ozone Layer
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to pro
Page: Moorish viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Microvipera mauritanica Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable Procoagulants and haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographi
Page: More Information on Walls
      More Information on Walls   Wikipedia: General information on walls Thrival Room article: Understand the Israeli-Palestinian Apartheid in 11 Images Al-Haq and Diakonia Seminar “Annexation Wall: Lessons Learned and Future Strategy” and "Al-Haq: The W
Page: Morhange Powder
Overview In France, 36 children died after being exposed to talc contaminated with hexachlorophene in 1972. This crisis, preceded a few months earlier in the United States by a warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a campaign carried out
Page: Morphine
Overview Morphine (C 17 H 19 NO 3 ), named after Morpheus, the God of dreams and son of Hypnos the God of sleep, is the most prominent of the 24 different alkaloids found in Opium. It was first isolated in 1803, yet the full chemical structure was not dec
Page: Moses Maimonides
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Moses Maimonides (March 30, 1135 Córdoba, Spain - December 13, 1204 Fostat, Egypt), was a Jewish Rabbi, philosopher, and physician in Spain and Egypt in the twelfth century and his wr
Page: Mount Pinatubo
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano located on the island of Luzon, in the Philippines.  The volcano erupted June 15, 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of th
Page: Mount Vesuvius
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Mount Vesuvius is a 1,218 meter volcano 9 miles east of Naples, Italy. The mountain was formed by the collision of two tectonic plates, the African and the Eurasian. The caldera initi
Page: Mountain pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Ovophis monticola Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable Procoagulants, haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range:
Page: Movie Resources
Add your favorite toxicology movie Popular Movies Erin Brockovich - 2000 movie which dramatizes the story of Erin Brockovich's first fight against the West Coast energy giant PG&E. The case,Anderson v. Pacific Gas & Electric Co. alleged contamination of d
Page: Mozambique spitting cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja mossambica Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxin, cytotoxins (necrotoxins) Manner of intake: Absorption through eye tissues and bites Absorption: Human toleranc
Page: Mr. Yuk
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Symbol adopted by the Pittsburgh Poison Center at The Children's Hospital in 1971. Used to educate children and parents about poisons and to prevent accidental poisonings. Mr. Yuk on youtube C
Page: Mr. Yuk Spanish
Información General Símbolo adoptado por el Centro de Envenenamiento de Pittsburgh en el Hospital de Niños en 1971. Utilizado para educar a los niños ya los padres sobre venenos y para prevenir intoxicaciones accidentales. Mr. Yuk on youtube   Perspectiva
Page: Mucor sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (274,996-1000)   PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Agent of (sub)cutaneous (1,1001-1003,1006,1007), gastrointestinal (1,1004,1005), pulmonary (1,1006-1008) infections, rhinocerebral mycoses (114,1006,1009), chronic suppurative otitis (184,
Page: Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن زكريا الرازي‎) (August 26, 865 – 925), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar.
Page: Muller's snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Aspidomorphus muelleri Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: New Guinea to western isl
Page: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
  Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is also known as - Environmental Illness (EI), Chemical Sensitivity, Chemical Injury, Toxic Injury, Sick Building Syndrome, Toxic Induced Loss of Tolerance (TILT) and Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance (IEI) just to
Page: Murad IV Ghazi
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Murad IV Ghazi (July 26, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of hi
Page: Muscle Shoals
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Muscle Shoals is the formal name for "Site A", which was used as a development facility for United States nerve agent production. Built by the Vitro Corporation, Muscle Shoals was locat
Page: Mustard Gas
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert   Mustard Gas - Poster Mustard Gas poster (3 mgb) by Matthew J. Geraci, PharmD, EOD and Mahdi Balali-Mood, MD, PhD Overview The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class o
Page: MV Erika - oil tanker
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Erika was the name of an tanker built in 1975 and last chartered by Total-Fina-Elf. She sank off the coast of France December 12, 1999, causing one of the greatest environmental disas
Page: My Personal Toxic Avenger Survival Guide
by Rachel Koller January 1, 2010 Toxins and airplane cabin air quality? Landlords who refuse to stop spraying pesticides? Chemicals in child car seats?  These are a few examples of the inquiry topics I receive at the Washington Toxics Coalition Toxics Hot
Page: My Thoughts on Community Health
by Danielle Morvan My life as I remember it started in a studio apartment in South Florida with my mother and older brother, in a neighborhood where we were encouraged to stay inside at all times. Not having access to safe, open green spaces limited our a
Page: My Thoughts on Health (Bernard Weiss)
This I Believe By Bernard Weiss, PhD July 3, 2005 I was one of the founders of the scientific discipline called behavioral toxicology. Toxicology is most often defined as the science of poisons. Behavioral toxicology is that aspect that seeks to understan
Page: My Thoughts on Health (Karen McDonell)
Karen McDonell I believe we live on the most extraordinary planet in the universe. I'll bet our Earth sparkles like a sapphire from space. A marvelous Blue Planet uniquely designed to sustain life. It is nothing less than a miracle that our landscapes and
Page: Myclobutanil
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Myclobutanil is a conazole class fungicide. It is used heavily to control fungi affecting wine and table grapes, especially in California. It also has a number of other food crop and com
Page: Mycotoxin and Propylene Glycol Poisoning in Dogs Caused by Purina Beneful Dog Food
Author:  Lydia Beverly Contributed to Toxipedia as part of the University Partnerships Program. Overview In 2013 and 2014, there were growing concerns about Purina’s Beneful dog food. There were over 3,000 claims made linking this type of dog food to the
Page: Mycotoxin References
Fungal Glossary Mycotoxin References as provided by Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology 1 Atlas of Clinical Fungi. 2nd edition. G.S. de Hoog, J.Guarro, J.Gene & M.J. Figuerras. - Centraalbureau voor Schi
Page: Myotoxins

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Page: N,N-Dimethylformamide
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This article is tagged for development. Overview Dimethylformamide is a clear liquid, miscible with water and majority of organic solvents and it is used as a solvent in the production of fibe
Page: NACCT-THR-2010
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the American Association of Poison Control Centers held the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology 2010 at the Hyatt Regency at
Page: NACCT-THR-2011
NACCT 2011 Overview The North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology 2011 was convened at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington DC, September 21-26. This annual meeting is sponsored by The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the American Associa
Page: Nagasaki, Japan
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Nagasaki, Japan Overview On August 9, 1945, Nagasaki was the target of the world's second atomic bomb attack at 11:02 a.m., when the north of the city was destroyed and an estimated 39,000 peo
Page: Naled
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Naled is an organophosphate insecticide first registered for use as an "adulticide insecticide" in 1959 primarily to control adult mosquitoes (#EPA Pesticides - Mosquito Control, 2007
Page: Nancy Dickeman
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Nancy Dickeman Nancy Dickeman Nancy Dickeman is a local writer and a co-founder of the multi-disciplinary exhibit, Particles on the Wall. Her first novel manuscript, Green Run, White Train, is set against the b
Page: Nanotec Risk Assessment
http://video.google.com/videosearch?hl=en&q=carbon+nanotubes+nanotechnology&revid=183590623&resnum=0&um=1&ie=UTF-8&ei=5vJsS9X8CobOsQOI7OGxDQ&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&ct=title&resnum=4&ved=0CB0QqwQwAw#
Page: Nanotech Risk Assessment
Aster's Letter Aster's Editorial  Regina's Letter Regina's Editorial Carbon Nanotubes Powerpoint Summary of Powerpoint Websites & Resources Nanotechnology Conference and Expo on June 21-25, 2010 in Anaheim, California Nanotech Conference & Expo 2002 Appro
Page: Nanotechnology
Also see Introduction to the Health Effects of Nanoparticles by Steve Gilbert. Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Lester Jacobson A Cobalt nanoparticle coated with layers of graphene (Wikicommons) Background What are Nanoparticles? The defining
Page: NANOTECHNOLOGY CARBON NANOTUEBES
http://video.google.com/videosearch?hl=en&q=carbon+nanotubes+nanotechnology&revid=183590623&resnum=0&um=1&ie=UTF-8&ei=5vJsS9X8CobOsQOI7OGxDQ&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&ct=title&resnum=4&ved=0CB0QqwQwAw#
Page: NANOTECHNOLOGY Does it help us or hurt us?
Nanotechnology:From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology Can Technology Spare the Earth? http://phe.rockefeller.edu/sparetheearth/ Experts: Technology Could Save or Destroy Civilization This Century http://www.lives
Page: Napalm
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Napalm is jellied gasoline that sticks to strutures as it burns at an incredibly high temperature. On July 17, 1944, napalm incendiary bombs were dropped for the first time by 14 Amer
Page: Napoleon Bonaparte
Main article: Napoleon's Death by Arsenic Exposure...? Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Todd J. Stedeford Overview Napoleon Bonaparte died on May 5th, 1821 in exile on the island of Saint Helena possibly of arsenic poisoning.
Page: Napoleon's Death by Arsenic Exposure...?
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Todd J. Stedeford   Overview Napoleon Bonaparte died on May 5th, 1821 in exile on the island of Saint Helena (#Lin, et al, 2004). Prior to his death, Napoleon requested that his hair be distributed to members of
Page: Natal blacksnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Macrelaps microlepidotus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Possibly Sarafotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: South Afr
Page: National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Kaitlin Mallory The Clean Air Act stipulates the enforcement of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), or air pollution limits for six contaminants that are believed to be most harmful to humans and th
Page: National Environmental Information Exchange Network Grant Program
   The Exchange Network is an internet-based information database shared by the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), states, regional EPA branches, tribes, territories, and local environmental organizations. The network provides data-sharing abi
Page: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
The information below is taken from the NIOSH website (http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/about.html, http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/strategic/). Summary, Mission, and Strategic Goals and Objectives The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) i
Page: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
The information below is taken from the NIEHS website (http://www.niehs.nih.gov/about/index.cfm). Summary The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), located in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, is one of 27 research institutes
Page: National Toxicology Program
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Dori Germolec Overview For the past 30 years, the NTP has been a leader in toxicology testing and research and provided important scientific information upon which public health decisions are based. NTP exists
Page: Natural Landscaping
Contents #Overview #5 Steps to Successful Landscapes #Design Phase #Building Phase #Operations and Management #Additional Resources Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: David McDonald   Overview This guide is divided into sections for the design,
Page: Natural nuclear fission reactor
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where analysis of isotope ratios has shown that self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred. The existence of this phe
Page: Nematocyst Venom
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Christine Zarker Primomo Just the facts   Physical Information Name: Nematocyst Venom Use: none Source: Jellyfish, Anemona, Coral Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: skin Sensitive indivi
Page: NEOS AB3000
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Nephrotoxins
Please contribute.
Page: Nerve Agents
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Nerve Agents were developed just prior to World War II initially as Insecticides but later used as Chemical Warfare agents and were advanced throughout the 20th century. There are thr
Page: Neurobehavioral Testing
Overview Neurobehavioral testing is a non-invasive method used to evaluate the performance of the central nervous system in an individual or group with similar exposures. Test batteries consist of tasks that measure performance of particular neurologic fu
Page: Neuropathology
This section is broken into two parts I. Peripheral Nervous System Pathology II Central Nervous System Pathology I. General Pathology of the Peripheral Nerve Two types of injury are possible: Schwann cell and Nerve Axon 1. Segmental Demyelination o Injury
Page: Neurotoxicological Effects
Exposure to pesticides has been linked to a variety of disorders that negatively affect the nervous system, including the brain and spine (neurological disorders). These disorders range in intensity from headaches and nausea, to depression, to debilitatin
Page: Neurotoxins
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Allison Camp Neuron Introduction Neurons are one of the main mechanisms of intracellular communication within the body. Bundles of neurons, known as nerves, are responsible for innervating muscles and organs, w
Page: Neurotransmitters
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Amines Quaternary Amines: Acetylcholine (ACh) Monamines: Catecholamines: norepinephrine(NE), Epinephrine (adrenaline), Dopamine(DA) Idolamines: Serotonin (5-HT), Melatonin Amino Acids
Page: Nevada Test Site
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in southeastern Nye County, Nevada, about 65 mi (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. For
Page: new author
insert short author bio more info Articles Written by Steven Gilbert Precautionary Principle Pure Food and Drugs Act (1906) Articles Edited by Steven Gilbert
Page: New Guinea death adder
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Acanthophis laevis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: New Guinea a
Page: New Guinea small-eyed snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Development #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and
Page: New London School explosion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The New London School explosion occurred on March 18, 1937, when a natural gas leak caused an explosion, destroying the London School of New London, Texas. The disaster killed more th
Page: New Page
Ministerio de la Produccion Instituto Nacional de Salud -Salud Ocupacional -Toxinologia Universities UNMSM Quimica Toxicologia UNI Ing Ambiental PUCP Quimica UPCH Quimica IMTaVH Banco de Sueros Immunologicos UNAP Professional Societies Colegio de Quimicos
Page: Newhouse, Kathleen
Kathleen Newhouse, MS, is a toxicologist at the EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment in Washington, D.C. She currently resides in Washington, D.C. Articles Written by Kathleen Newhouse
Page: News and Events
Toxipedia Newsletter Click HERE to subscribe to the Toxipedia newsletter! Read our latest newsletters here! See our newsletter archives here!   Upcoming Events Particles on the Wall Exhibit in Richland, WA Particles on the Wall, an interdisciplinary exhib
Page: Newsletters
See a list of our latest newsletters here! 2015 Newsletters January 18 February 11 February 27 2014 Newsletters January March May July August September November December 2013 Newsletters January March May July September October December Holiday Issue 2012
Page: Neyshabur Incident
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Nishapur, or Neyshabur, train disaster was actually an immense explosion in the village of Khayyam near Nishapur, Iran on February 18, 2004. Over 300 people were killed and the en
Page: Nick Thorp
Nick Thorp joined the Toxipedia staff in July of 2008 to manage the development and launch of IPMopedia. Since that time Nick's responsibilities and role has broadened as he now serves as project manager for Toxipedia, IPMopedia, the World Library of Toxi
Page: Nicolas Flamel
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview He has since appeared as a legendary alchemist in various fictional works, including Harry Potter and The Sorcerer's Stone —1330 – Paris, March 22, 1418 —succeeded at the two goals of
Page: Nicotine
Lead Author: Steven G. Gilbert Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Overview Nicotine is one of the most potent, toxic, and readily available drugs today. The history of tobacco use dates back over two millennia; its psychoactive and medicinal properties were d
Page: Nicotine - External Links and References
External Links European, Asian, and International Agencies • England - Department of Health - Public Health and Tobacco. Online: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Healthimprovement/Tobacco/index.htm (accessed: 24 August 2008). • Society for Research on
Page: Nicotine - Health Effects and Regulation
Nicotine is a highly toxic drug, with only 60 mg being lethal to an adult. The average cigarette contains 8 to 9 mg of nicotine; so one pack of cigarettes contains enough nicotine to kill the average adult, to say nothing of a child. Depending on smoking
Page: Nicotine - Introduction and History
Nicotine was isolated from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) in 1828, but the powerful effects of nicotine were already well recognized. The tobacco plant is native to the Americas and its use as a medicine and stimulant goes back at least 2000 years and
Page: Nicotine - Recommendation and Conclusions
Given the serious health effects associated with cigarette smoking, primarily maintained by the addictive properties of nicotine, the best advice is not to start. Unfortunately, despite the obvious health problems and cost to society, thousands of young p
Page: Nicotine Case Studies
"The Divine Origin of Tobacco" Tobacco was a powerful medicine for the first people of the Americas. Native California tribal legend traces the origins of tobacco to sacred immortals that they believed first inhabited the land. The immortal ancestors gave
Page: Nicotine Poisoning
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Causes Most often, nicotine poison is the result of of its use as an insecticide. But more children are going to the emergency room every year with nicotine poisoning as a result of eating cig
Page: Nicotine Toxicity
Author: Cameron Sale Contributed to Toxipedia as part of the University Partnerships Program.   Authors: Cameron Sale Overview Nicotine has long been used by humans via smoking and chewing tobacco, but toxicity rarely results from such use (Benowitz, 2010
Page: Nicotine: A Most Addictive Killer
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Nigrospora sp.
MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Metabolite A (1059) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Reported as possible cause of skin lesions(1,2) and keratitis (1,2,1060) IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA) Rapid growth, gray, cottony, single black, oval conidia
Page: Nitrobenzene
This article is tagged for development and cleanup. Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Nitrobenzene CAS No: 98-95-3 Trade Names: Caswell No. 600 Use: industrial chemical intermediary Ov
Page: Nitrogen
Please add content about nitrogen.
Page: NOKOMIS 3-AA
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: NOKOMIS 3-F4
This oil dispersant product page contains information about the potential effects of the chemicals found in the product on human health and the marine environment. Also included is information from the EPA Product Schedule on the toxicity of this product
Page: Nonionizing Radiation
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts   Physical Information Name: Nonionizing Radiation Use: power transmission, communication, heating, cooking, vision, photosynthesis (sun light), etc. Source: Ultraviolet light,
Page: Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates
Overview Nonylphenol (NP) and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPE) are the most widely used members of the larger alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylate family of non-ionic surfactants. They are produced in large volumes, with uses that lead to widespread releas
Page: norepinephrine
Please Contribute to Toxipedia!.
Page: Norman Gregg
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Sir Norman McAlister Gregg, MC (March 7, 1892 – July 27, 1966) was an Australian ophthalmologist, who discovered that rubella suffered by a pregnant woman could cause birth defects
Page: Norman Haworth
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Norman Haworth (March 19, 1883 - March 19, 1950) was a British chemist who received the Nobel Prize in 1937 for his work on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and structures of carbohydrates
Page: North America
Elapidae Coralsnakes Sonoran coralsnake (micruroides euryxanthus) Eastern coralsnake (Micrurus fulvius) Viperidae Pitvipers Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortix) Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) Mexican cantil (Agkistrodon bilineatus) Terciopelo (Bothrop
Page: Northern cross adder
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Vipera berus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range:British Isles a
Page: Northwest Hazardous Materials Management Conference
Course Description and Material Do you want to learn more about the principles of toxicology and the health effects of chemical exposures? You will benefit from "A Small Dose of Toxicology," an advanced course based on the book A Small Dose of Toxicology
Page: Norway
See the World Library of Toxicology.
Page: Novaya Zemlya
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Soviet Union designated Novaya Zemlya as the Novaya Zemlya Test Site, and construction began in October 1954 for use assa nuclear bomb test set which continued during much of the
Page: November 1
1815 - Crawford Long born today 1815, an American physician and pharmacist best known for his early use of diethyl ether as an anesthetic. 1952 - United States today 1952 exploded the first hydrogen bomb in a test at Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands.   19
Page: November 10
1986 - Leona Woods died today 1986 a brilliant American physicists who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb. previous day - next day
Page: November 11
1493 - Paracelsus, the "father of toxicology," was born today 1493 or December 17 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. Alchemist, famous for "The dose makes the poison."  He died on September 24, 1541.  Available in Spanish: Paracelso (Spanish) previous day - next
Page: November 12
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Page: November 13
2002 - The Prestige oil spill occurred today 2002 largest environmental disaster in Spain's history, when 20 million gallons of oil were releases when the Prestige oil tanker broke a part. previous day - next day
Page: November 14
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Page: November 15
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Page: November 16
1938- LSD (Lysergic acid diethyl amide) an psychedelic drug was first synthesized today 1938 by Albert Hofmann. previous day - next day
Page: November 17
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Page: November 18
Philbert Commerson - more info coming soon Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld - more info coming soon August Kundt - more info coming soon previous day - next day
Page: November 19
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Page: November 2
1944 - Thomas Midgley, Jr., died today 1944, an American chemist who developed the tetra-ethyl lead (TEL) additive for gasoline and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). previous day - next day
Page: November 20
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Page: November 21
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Page: November 22
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Page: November 23
2006 - Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko, died today 2006, a former KGB colonel and FSB lieutenant-colonel, following exposure to polonium 210. 1910 - Hawley Harvey Crippen hanged today 1910, American homeopathic physician hanged in Pentonville Prison, Lon
Page: November 24
1859 - Charles Darwin's On The Origin of Species, published today 1859, is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. previous day - next day
Page: November 25
1883 - Harvey Spencer Lewis born today 1883, a noted Rosicrucian author, occultist, and mystic, was the founder in USA and the first Imperator of Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (AMORC). previous day - next day
Page: November 26
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Page: November 27
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Page: November 28
1954 - Enrico Fermi died today 1954. an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938. previous day - next day
Page: November 29
The first underground nuclear test was conducted on today, 1951, at Nevada test site, a 1.2 kiloton Buster-Jangle Uncle, which detonated 5.2 m (17 ft) beneath ground level.  previous day - next day
Page: November 3
1906 - Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist, first defined Alzheimer's Disease today 1906. previous day - next day
Page: November 30
Vermont Yankee is an electricity generating nuclear power plant, was commissioned today 1972 and shut down December 29, 2014. It generated 620 megawatts (MWe) of electricity at full power. The plant was designed by General Electric, and is a boiling water
Page: November 4
1902 - Otto Bayer (Otto Georg Wilhelm Bayer) born today 1902 in Frankfurt. Bayer, an industrial chemist, headed the research group at the German IG Farben that synthesized polyurethane foam in 1937. 1894 - Wilhelm Carl Hueper, born today 1894 an early pio
Page: November 5
1714 - Bernardo Ramazzini, died today 1714, an Italian physician who was one of the first to make the link between worker occupation and health. previous day - next day
Page: November 6
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Page: November 7
1867 - Marie Curie born today 1867, was a pioneer in the early field of radioactivity, later becoming the first two-time Nobel laureate and the only person to win Nobel Prizes in two different fields of science (physics and chemistry). 1878 - Lise Meitner
Page: November 8
Conrad Hal Waddington born today 1905, a British developmental biologist, paleontologist, geneticist, embryologist and philosopher who laid the foundations for systems biology. He postulated that it was not just the genes that shaped development but also
Page: November 9
1850 - Louis Lewin, born today 1850, a German pharmacologist, classified drugs and plants in accordance to their psychological effects. In 1886, he published the first methodical analysis of the Peyote cactus. Available in Spanish: Louis Lewin (Spanish) p
Page: Novichok
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Novichok, or Folient, Agents are binary nerve agents developed by the former Soviet Union and later by Russia through the mid 1980s until around 1993 when Russian scientist Vil Mirzay
Page: NPSR Statement on Precautionary Principle
Physicians for Social Responsibility (National PSR) Resolution Affirming the Precautionary Principle: Be it resolved that Physicians for Social Responsibility endorses the Precautionary Principle and encourages government at all levels, the private sector
Page: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT or NNPT) a treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of nuclear weapons, was signed
Page: Nuclear Power
See WANMEC Nuclear Power
Page: nuclear radiation
See Radioactive Decay .
Page: NUCLEAR RADIATION CLEAN UP 1950s
NUCLEAR RADIATION CLEAN UP 1950s As I swing on the gate at my friend's house I watch white suited men disappear inside., their wand-like counters cackle at invisible findings spoken only in whispers from neighbor to neighbor. My friend and her mom are gon
Page: Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   President Kennedy signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty October 7, 1963 in the Treaty Room at the White House.  The Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) prohibited all test detonations of nu
Page: Nuclear Weapons: Toxic, Wasteful, Useless!
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Nutmeg - a spicy drug
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Franck Canorel Overview Nutmeg is an egg-shaped seed of Myristica fragrans, a tree growing in the Banda Islands (Moluccas; Indonesia). Despite the risk of death, nutmeg remained popular among women who wanted t
Page: NWECT - INND.Toxipedia Tox Course
Course Description and Material Do you want to learn more about the principles of toxicology and the health effects of chemical exposures? You will benefit from "A Small Dose of Toxicology," a basic course based on the book A Small Dose of Toxicology by S

O

Page: O-Zone Layer
Please Contribute to Toxipedia!.
Page: Occupational Safety & Health Act
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. It was created by Congress of the United States under the Occupati
Page: Oceanview Farms hog waste
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized in the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. In this system of pig production, grower pigs are hous
Page: October 1
1971 - Computed tomography (CT) scanning was introduced today 1971 into medical practice with a successful scan on a cerebral cyst patient at Atkinson Morley Hospital in Wimbledon, London, United Kingdom. 1957 - Thalidomide was marketed today 1957 in Germ
Page: October 10
  1963 - The Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) went into effect today 1963, prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground. 1957 - The Windscale fire today 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history, ranked in sever
Page: October 11
1976 - The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) became law on October 11, 1976. previous day - next day
Page: October 12
1812 - Ascanio Sobrero born today 1812, an Italian chemist who discovered nitroglycerin, a powerful explosive and vasodilator, in 1847. 1965 - Paul Hermann Muller, died today 1965, a Swiss Scientist, awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
Page: October 13
1928 - American football can be toxic - today 1928 warning in The Journal of the American Medical Association: "There is a very definite brain injury due to single or repeated blows on the head or jaw which cause multiple concussion hemorrhages. ... The c
Page: October 14
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Page: October 15
  1941 - Norman McAlister Gregg today 1941, delivered a paper, Congenital Cataract following German Measles in the Mother, to the Ophthalmological Society of Australia in Melbourne which published it in its journal, Transactions, documenting that rubella
Page: October 16
1964 - People's Republic of China's today 1964, conducted its first nuclear weapons test, detonated on at the Lop Nur test site, codenamed 596. previous day - next day
Page: October 17
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Page: October 18
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Page: October 19
2005 - Saddam Hussein today 2005 goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity during his reign as dictator of Iraq. The charges stem, in part, from his use of Chemical Weapons. previous day - next day
Page: October 2
1927 - Svante August Arrhenius died today 1927, Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, illustrate the application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins, and which w
Page: October 20
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Page: October 21
1833 - Alfred Bernhard Nobel, died today 1833, Swedish chemist, engineer, armaments manufacturer, and inventor of dynamite. previous day - next day
Page: October 22
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Page: October 23
2015 - The Aliso Canyon gas leak also called Porter Ranch gas leak started on October 23, 2015.  The well releases about 1,200 tons of methane every day. In terms of release of greenhouse gases, this output in a month has been compared to the equivalent o
Page: October 24
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Page: October 25
1827 - Marcellin Berthelot born today 1827, a French chemist who published the two-volume Chimie organique fondee sur la synthese (1860), which is the basis of modern organic chemistry. Berthelot was one of the first to produce organic compounds synthetic
Page: October 26
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Page: October 27
1968 – Lise Meitner died today 1968 was an Austrian physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.  Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize.  Me
Page: October 28
1912 - Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll born today 1912, a British epidemiologist, physiologist, and pioneer in research linking smoking to health problems. previous day - next day
Page: October 29
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Page: October 3
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Page: October 30
1961 - Tsar Bomba detonated today 1961 the nickname for the AN602 hydrogen bomb developed by the Soviet Union, the most powerful nuclear weapon ever tested. previous day - next day
Page: October 31
1620 - John Evelyn born today 1620 was an English writer, gardener and diarist.  Noted for writing one of the first books on air pollution - Fumifugium previous day - next day
Page: October 4
1633 - Bernardo Ramazzini, born today 1633, an Italian physician who wrote De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers), one of the founders of occupational medicine. 1906 - Alice Mary Stewart born today 1906, British physician and epidemiologist sp
Page: October 5
2002 - Anthony Mazzocchi died today 2002, was an American labor leader, instrumental in founding OSHA. 1953 - The first documented recovery meeting of Narcotics Anonymous was held today 1953. previous day - next day
Page: October 6
1783 - Francois Magendie, born today 1783, a French physiologist and pioneer in experimental physiology, researched the effects of morphine, quinine, strychnine, and other alkaloids on the nervous system and is regarded as the father of experimental pharm
Page: October 7
1855 - Francois Magendie, died today 1855, considered the father of experimental pharmacology. 1962 - The U.S.S.R. today 1962 performed a nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. 1963 - John F. Kennedy today 1963, signed the Nucl
Page: October 8
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Page: October 9
1852 - Hermann Emil Fischer born today 1852, a German chemist, discovered Caffeine, defined the structure of sugar, and received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1902. 2005 - Smoking tobacco  was today 2005 fully banned on the UK rail network. 1047 - Pope
Page: Official WLT Press Release
Toxipedia, in partnership with the USA National Library of Medicine (NLM), the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX), and the Institute of Neurotoxicology and Neurological Disorders (INND), is proud to announce the launch of the World Library of Toxic
Page: Oil Dispersant
Topic Editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead Author: Nick Thorp This section of Toxipedia was created solely by Toxipedia staff. Overview Oil dispersants are a common tool used after oil spills to break up oil slicks on the water surface and increase the oil's ra
Page: Oil Dispersant Glossary
A Absorption to Sediment and Suspended Solids Certain chemicals have the ability to absorb and attach themselves to suspended solids and sediment in the water. By absorbing to solids and sediment they are more likely to enter the food chain as aquatic org
Page: Oil Dispersants: Is There a Right to Know?
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Okinawa habu
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Protobothrops flavovirdis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Haemorrhagins, cytotoxins (necrotoxins) Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geograph
Page: Okinawa Sarin Leak
Overview On July 8, 1969 twenty-three soldiers and one civilian working on the American army base on Okinawa became sick after one of the bombs filled wqith Sarin began to leak after a sand-blast treatment (#Tucker, 2006). On July 18, The Wall Street Jour
Page: Old Lead Belt
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Location and Overview The Old Lead Belt is a mining area that covers 110 miles in southeastern Missouri. The first recorded mining occurred in the Old Lead Belt in 1742 and the production incr
Page: Olive seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Aipysurus laevis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins, posysynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Tro
Page: On The Origin of Species
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published on November 24, 1859, is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Darwin's book presented evidence that the divers
Page: Operation Buster–Jangle
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Operation Buster–Jangle was a series of seven (six atmospheric, one cratering) nuclear weapons tests conducted by the United States in late 1951 at the Nevada Test Site. The first u
Page: Operation Crossroads
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Operation Crossroads was a series of nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in mid-1946. It was the first test of a nuclear weapon after the Trinity nucle
Page: Operation Davey Jones' Locker
OPERATION DAVEY JONES' LOCKER Review TXP-1 Operation Davey Jones' Locker was a British operation aimed at disposing confiscated stocks of German mustard gas, phosgene, and other Chemical Weapons (#Tucker, 2006). From June 1946 to August 1948, thirty eight
Page: Operation Dustbin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Operation Dustbin was a top-secret joint program between the British and the Americans to interrogate German scientists following the Allied victory over the Nazis in WOrld War II. Scientists
Page: Opio
Just the facts Physical Information Name: Opium Use: pain-reliever Source: opium poppy Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: inhalation, ingestion Sensitive individuals: everyone Regulatory facts: Article 23 of the United Nations' [Si
Page: Opium
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Opium Use: pain-reliever Source: opium poppy Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: inhalation, ingestion Sensitive individuals: e
Page: Opium History
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview "The mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Museum and Visitors Center is to educate the American public on the history of drugs, drug addiction and drug law enforcement
Page: Oppau explosion
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Oppau explosion - The Oppau explosion occurred on September 21, 1921 when a tower silo storing 4500 tonnes of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate fertilizer exploded at
Page: Orange-naped snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Furina ornata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Probable procoagulants, neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Northe
Page: Ordem dos Templários (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Os Cavaleiros Templários ou "Os Pobres Cavaleiros de Cristo" eram uma ordem monástica de cavaleiros fundada em 1112 d.C., no Monte do Templo, para proteger os peregrinos ao longo do caminho
Page: Organic Mercury Tragedies
Coming soon . . .
Page: Organo Phosphate (OP) Pesticide Residues in Food
Scientists affiliated with the Food Ingredient and Health Research Institute are working on a number of research projects.  One study recently completed involved a review of the USDA pesticide residue data to determine the most common source of Organo Pho
Page: Organochlorines
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Physical Information Name: Organochlorine Insecticides Use: kill insects Source: synthetic chemistry, plants Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: intestine, inhalation,
Page: Organophosphates
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Name: Organophosphates Use: Pesticides Source: synthetic chemistry, plants Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: intestine, inhalation, skin Sensitive individuals: fetus
Page: Orsini's meadow viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Vipera ursini Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: France, Italy
Page: Other Notable Walls
  Other Notable Walls Other Notable Walls Black Wall Street (Greenwood, Tulsa Oklahoma) Other Notable Walls Other Notable Walls The Devil's Rope: Barbed Wire 1600s: Wall Street, New York Wall Street in New York City is only 0.7 mile long but is the financ
Page: Other Topics
In the interest of keeping our topic list to a manageable length, some additional topics are being gathered on this page. Additional Topics on Toxipedia Algal Bloom Estuary Exposure Limits Genetically Modified Foods Quotes
Page: Othmar Zeidler
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Othmar Zeidler (August 29, 1850 - June 17, 1911) was an Austrian chemist credited with the first synthesis of DDT, (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane) in 1874. He was a doctoral student
Page: Othmar Zeidler Spanish
coming soon...
Page: Otto Ambros
Otto Ambros was a chemist at the German company IG Farben and was a leading figure in developing Germany's Chemical Weapons arsenal. He was questioned in the Spring of 1945 after the German surrender and claimed to be a "plain chemist" during his intervie
Page: Otto Bayer
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Otto Bayer (Otto Georg Wilhelm Bayer), (November 4, 1902, 1982) was born in Frankfurt while not related to the family that founded the Bayer Group, he was nonetheless a noted chemist.
Page: Otto Hahn
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery
Page: Ottoman viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Vipera xanthina Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Northeaster
Page: Oxalates - Oxalic acid
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview   Oxalate (see first figure) with the formula C2O42−, also written (COO)22−. Either name is often used for derivatives, such as salts of oxalic acid (right mist figure), for example s
Page: oxygen
Please contribute.

P

Page: p-Anisaldehyde
Overview p-Anisaldehyde is an organic compound that is a clear to slightly yellow oily liquid. Its molecular formula is C8-H8-O2. It occurs naturally in the fennel and anise plants. It is a high volume chemical with production over 1 million pounds annual
Page: p-blog
Pediatric Blog Richard Grady - 7/6/09 - kids have problems because of Bisphenol-A Steve Gilbert - says thats not right its all caffeine
Page: P2RIC's SustainUpdates
Overview Summaries of Sustainability Tips & Applied Information ( SUSTAIN) Updates is a project created by the Pollution Prevention Regional Information Center as a part of the Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange (P2Rx).  P2Rx has created the SUSTAIN U
Page: Painted carpet viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Echis coloratus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins, cytotoxins (necrotoxins) Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geo
Page: Painted coralsnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Micrurus corallinus Basic Information Venom name: Type of Toxin: Postsynaptic neurotoxin and myotoxins Manner of intake: bite and coastal forest Absorption: Human tolerance: T
Page: Paintings
Have a Hanford-inspired painting you'd like to submit to the exhibit? Contact the WANMEC project manager at njthorp@gmail.com
Page: Pakistani carpet viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Echis sockureki Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Northeaster
Page: Palestine - West Bank / Gaza
Walls and Palestine   Posters  from Bombers, Blood, and Teddy Bears: Posters from the 2014 war on Gaza - from  Mondoweiss   1936 Franz Krausz poster (see The Palestine Poster Project Archives) Matias Roland Decraene (France)   (see The Palestine Poster Pr
Page: Palestine viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Daboia palaestinae Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Northwes
Page: Palladium Use in Dental Restoration Materials
Author:     Morgan Musick Contributed to Toxipedia as part of the University Partnerships Program.  Overview Palladium is a steel-colored, ductile metal that is a member of the group of platinum metals (Melber, Mangelsdorf, & Keller 2002). The element was
Page: Palomares incident
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The 1966 Palomares B-52 crash or Palomares incident occurred on January 17, 1966, when a B-52G bomber of the USAF Strategic Air Command collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air re
Page: Pampers Dry Max Diapers
Problems Procter and Gamble and Weird Pampers Science by Phil Butler - June 3, 2010 from Everything PR Or Not a Problem My two cents on Pampers Dry Max Diapers - Stephanie Manner Wagner (Author/Owner of And Twins make 5!)
Page: Paolo and Francesco Costa
Coming soon…
Page: Papa Clemente II
Overview Información General Fue muy fácil olvidar el Papa Clemente VII como Papa, después de haber ganado el título a consecuencia de las relaciones políticas. Sin embargo, un examen toxicológico reciente confirma el hecho de que Clemente murió de exposi
Page: Papa Clemente VII
Información General Fue muy fácil olvidar el Papa Clemente VII como Papa, después de haber ganado el título a consecuencia de las relaciones políticas. Sin embargo, un examen toxicológico reciente confirma el hecho de que Clemente murió de exposición al p
Page: Papers
This section will house papers written about Hanford. Whether it's a report written for a college course or a white paper written to inform and educate, this is the place to host it. Stay tuned for additions to this section in the coming months. If you ha
Page: Papiro de Ebers
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral O Papiro de Ébers, (cerca de 1500 a.C.), é um dos dois mais antigos documentos médicos ainda mantidos nos dias de hoje, sendo o principal registro da história médica Egípcia. Nele, os egípci
Page: Papiro Ebers
Información General El Papiro Ebers es uno de los más antiguos tratados médicos conocidos. Fue redactado en el antiguo Egipto, cerca del año 1500 antes de nuestra era; está fechado en el año 8º del reinado de Amenhotep I, de la dinastía XVIII. En el papir
Page: Papuan blacksnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert pseudechis papuanus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants, anticoagulants, neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic
Page: Paracelso
Overview Theophrastus Phillippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, o Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim, conocido como Paracelso o Teofrasto Paracelso (n. en Zúrich, en la Teufelsbrücke, Einsiedeln, 10 de noviembre de 1493 – Salzburgo, 24 de septiembre de
Page: Paracelso (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Paracelso é o pseudônimo de Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheimborn, nascido no final de 1493 em Einsiedeln, Suíça, filho de um pai químico, e falecido em 24 de setembro de 1541 em S
Page: Paracelsus
Overview Paracelsus (born Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheimborn November 11 or December 17 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland, died September 24, 1541 in Salzburg, Austria), sometimes called the "father" of toxicology. He was born to a
Page: Paracelsus: Does the Dose Really Make the Poison?
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Paraquat
Overview Paraquat is a toxic herbicide that has been related to several hundred cases of fatal human poisoning. Paraquat poisoning has mainly been due to deliberate oral ingestion (for suicide or murder), but there are a few cases of accidental direct ing
Page: Parathion
Overview Parathion (C10H14NO5PS) is an organophospate insecticide primarily used on fruit, cotton, wheat, vegetables, and nut crops. (#EPA) It has been attributed to numerous mass human poisonings due to its high toxicity. (#Timbrell, 2004) Lead author: C
Page: Partners
The following organizations are partners of Toxipedia. These partnerships are dynamic relationships where we support each others' missions, goals, and work through mutual promotion and collaboration. Check out our Partnership Guidelines. If you are intere
Page: Partnership Guidelines
Supporting Partner Benefits: Web space on Toxipedia to highlight your organization, its projects and programs, as well as updates on events, achievements, and other news Announcement of the partnership in our monthly newsletter that reaches over 4,000 con
Page: Patagonian Lancehead
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Bothrops ammodytoides Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: probable Procoagulants, but little known Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antiv
Page: Pathogenic References 1-500
Fungal Glossary Pathogenic References as provided by Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology. 1 Atlas of Clinical Fungi. 2nd edition. G.S. de Hoog, J.Guarro, J.Gene & M.J. Figuerras. - Centraalbureau voor Sc
Page: Pathogenic References 1001-1543
Fungal Glossary Pathogenic References as provided by Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology. 1001 Primary cutaneous zygomycosis due to Mucor circinelloides. Chandra S, Woodgyer A. Australas J Dermatol. 2002
Page: Pathogenic References 501-984
Fungal Glossary Pathogenic References as provided by Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology.   501 Entomophthoromycosis due to Conidiobolus. Gugnani HC. Eur J Epidemiol. 1992 May;8(3):391-6. Entomophthoromy
Page: Paul Hermann Muller
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Paul Hermann Muller (January 12, 1899 - October 12, 1965), a Swiss Scientist, was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for recognizing DDT as useful in the control of certain
Page: Paul Müller Spanish
Coming soon...
Page: Paulsboro, N.J. train derailment
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Soviet Union designated Novaya Zemlya as the Novaya Zemlya Test Site, and construction began in October 1954 for use assa nuclear bomb test set which continued during much of the
Page: PCBs
Overview Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to a broad family of man-made organic chemicals known as chlorinated hydrocarbons. PCBs were domestically manufactured from 1929 until their manufacture was banned in 1979. Although PCBs are no longer made
Page: Peace
Peace – To reach their full potentail children need peace Organizations reaching toward peace Nuclear Age Peace Foundation The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation initiates and supports worldwide efforts to abolish nuclear weapons, to strengthen international la
Page: Pedanio Dioscórides
Información General Pedanio (o Pedacio) Dioscórides Anazarbeo (Anazarbus, Cilicia, en Asia Menor, c. 40 - c. 90) fue un médico, farmacólogo y botánico de la antigua Grecia, cuya obra De Materia Medica alcanzó una amplia difusión y se convirtió en el princ
Page: Pedanius Dioscorides: "Lead makes the mind give way"
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Pediatric Urology
Topic Editor: Richard Grady, MD Pediatric Urology - Introduction Pediatric urology is a urologic subspecialty of medicine dealing with the disorders of children's genitourinary systems. Pediatric urologists provide care for both boys and girls ranging fro
Page: Pedro de Abano
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Pedro de Abano foi um médico italiano, filósofo e astrólogo, bem conhecido por suas habilidades médicas e por seu trabalho escolar. Ele traduziu Hipócrates, Galeno e muitos outros textos méd
Page: Pelagic seasnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Pelamis platurus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Myotoxins, postsynaptic neurotoxins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Ind
Page: Penicillium sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (69,71,72,81,95,127,253,254,341,346,458,735,1127,1128) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Various toxins by different species: Anacine (3,1129), Arisugacins A&B (1142), Auranthine(sclerotigenin) (3,1130), Aurantiamine (3), Belfedrin A (26,1131),
Page: Pentachlorophenol
Overview Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a chemical used in the past as a herbicide, defoliant, mossicide, and as a disinfectant. Since 1987 the U.S. restricted some of its non-preservative use and is no longer registered for residential use. It is now applied
Page: People Responding to War and Conflict
People Response to War and Conflict: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Impact of War on Home, Human Health and Built Environments.   Introduction This course works on two levels, the first is global and the second is human. On the global level, it aims
Page: Pepper Spray
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Page: Peptic Ulcers
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Peptic Ulcers are painful sores that emerge somewhere in the gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus, on the lining of the stomach, and the duodenum (the first part of the smal
Page: Per- and Poly-Fluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFAS)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), or perfluorooctane sulfonate, is a man-made fluorosurfactant and global pollutant. It was added to Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on Persiste
Page: Percivall Pott
Overview Born in London (January 6, 1714 - December 22, 1788) and apprentice to Edward Nourse. Percivall Pott made some groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cancer research and surgery techniques. He discovered the link between occupational carcino
Page: Percivall Pott (Spanish)
Información General Percivall Pott (6 de enero de 1714 - 22 de diciembre de 1788), Londres, Inglaterra) fue un cirujano británico y aprendiz de Edward Nourse. Fue uno de los padres de la ortopedia, y el primer científico en demostrar que un cáncer puede s
Page: Perfluorinated Chemicals: Non-stick and Non-healthy
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Performance Enhancing Drugs
Performance Enhancing Drugs PowerPoint Presentation (powerpoint 3.7. mgb)
Page: Peringuey's adder
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bitis peringueyi Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Namib desert from Angola to Nam
Page: Permethrin
Authors: Dan Becker Overview Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide used as an acaricide and insect repellent. It is employed not only in agriculture, but also in forestry, household settings, and public health programs. As a neurotoxin, permethri
Page: Persian Toxicology Poster
Authors: Ali Banagozar Mohammadi پوستر توکسیکولوژی   اختلالات اسید و باز در مسمومیتها   مسمومیت با ارگانوفسفره ها   مسمومیت با کلشی سین   مسمومیت با  استامینوفن   NACآنتی دوت   نقاط عطف در سم شناسی  
Page: Persian Translation of Milestones of Toxicology
  The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated by Ali Banagozar Mohammadi (Assistant Professor of Forensic Medicine & Medical Toxicology at Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences) & Golchin onsori  ( medical student) at Internal
Page: Persistent Environmental Contaminants
The content below is adapted from A Small Dose of Toxicology by Steven G. Gilbert. Overview Persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs), also known as persistent environmental contaminants, persistent pollutants, or persistent toxic chemicals, are resista
Page: Peru
Authors: J Ponce {} Government Agencies _ Ministry of the Environment (Ministerio de Ambiente (MINAM)) Ministry of the energy and mines (Ministerio de Energí y Minas (MINEM)) Ministry of Health (Ministerio de Salud (MINSA)) Ministry of Labor (Ministerio d
Page: Peste negra
Información General La peste negra o muerte negra, también conocida como la peste bubónica es una enfermedad bacteriana propagada por roedores que eliminó cerca de un tercio de la población europea en el medio siglo XIV. Historia La muerte negra, o la pes
Page: Peste Negra (PT-BR)
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral A Peste Negra, também conhecida como peste bubônica, é uma doença bacteriana transmitida por roedores que dizimou cerca de um terço da população da Europa no século XIV. História A Peste Neg
Page: Pesticide
See Pesticides
Page: Pesticide Profiles on Toxipedia
Additional pesticide resources on Toxipedia: Pesticides main section: overview of different types, mechanisms of action, health effects, history of use, regulation, and more, and a literature review of published journal articles. Pesticide Use in Developi
Page: Pesticide Registration in Washington State
Topic editor:Maria M. Williams Lead author:Katarina Lah The Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) is responsible for the registration of pesticides in Washington. Washington pesticide registration requirements are found in the Washington Pesti
Page: Pesticide Use in Developing Nations
Overview <iframe width="425" height="350" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" src="http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?hl=en&ie=UTF8&msa=0&msid=107231493756430455566.00048d8efe469c49f3778&ll=42.032974,-28.125&spn=87.656688,149.41406
Page: Pesticide Use Statistics
Both the volume of pesticides used and the amount of money spent on pesticides demonstrate our dependency on these chemicals. Amount of Pesticides Used in the US and Worldwide The EPA reported that 4.9 billion pounds of pesticide products were used in the
Page: Pesticides
Author: Steven G. Gilbert Copyeditor: Maria M. Williams Overview Definition The purpose of a pesticide is usually to kill or repel some form of life. The US Environmental Protection Agency's definition of a pesticide is as follows: "A pesticide is any sub
Page: Pesticides - External Links and Resources
This list is currently being revised and updated. Thank you for your patience. Pesticide Gateway Pesticide Information Profile PAN Pesticides Database European Union - Chemical and Pesticide Information . (accessed: 4 April 2003). Site contains policy and
Page: Pesticides - History
Minerals and Metals One of the first pesticides was sulfur, used by the Chinese in around 1000 BC to control bacteria and mold (fungus). Sulfur is still widely used today. For example, it is used in fungides to control diseases on both agricultural and or
Page: Pharmaceutical Companies
Amgen
Page: Pharmaceuticals in the Water
History In March of 2008, the Associated Press published the results of a nationwide survey of the drinking water in major cities across the United States. The survey found trace amounts of a considerable number of pharmaceuticals, on the orders of parts
Page: Pharmacokinetics
text Contents #text #text #text #text #text #text #text Topic editor: editor name Lead author: author name Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory fa
Page: Phil Horning
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Phil Horning Overview Lassen Foundation, Inc., a 501(c)3 non-profit foundation, was founded in 1954 by Merritt C. Horning, M.D., MPH, father of the current Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Foundation's p
Page: Philip Wexler
Technology Information Specialist National Library of Medicine Managing Editor of World Library of Toxicology (www.wltox.org) Background Philip Wexler has worked at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) since 1978, most of that time with the Toxicol
Page: Philippine cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja philippinensis Physical Information Venom name: Highly potent postsynaptic neurotoxins Toxins: α-neurotoxins Manner of intake: Subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal. A
Page: Philippines
Country Correspondent: Dr. Kenneth Hartigan Go - Consultant PCHRD-Department of Science & Technology (DOST) 3/F DOST Administration Bldg. DOST Complex Bicuitan Taguig, Metro Manila, Philippines Email: hartigan@zuelligfoundation.org  Alternate Corresponden
Page: Philosopher's Stone
PHILOSOPHER'S STONE
Page: Phorate
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Phorate is a highly toxic organophosphate pesticide used to control control sucking and chewing insects, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, some nema
Page: Phosgene
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Phosgene is a major industrial chemical used to make chemicals and Pesticides, but at room temperature it is a poisonous gas. It was used extensively in World War II as a pulmonary agent. The
Page: phosmet
Please add the phosmet page. 
Page: Phosphamidon
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert [This article has been tagged for development.] Phosphamidon is an organophosphate insecticide that was marketed under the trade name of "Dimecron " until its producer voluntarily canceled produ
Page: Phosphine
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory facts: General facts: Environmental: Recommend
Page: Phospholan
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Contents #Toxilogical Perspective #Pharmacology and Metabolism #Discovery and Debelopment #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Regulation #History #Advocacy and Opinion #Teachin
Page: Phosphorous
h Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Just the facts Physical Information Name: Use: Source: Recommended daily intake: Absorption: Sensitive individuals: Toxicity/symptoms: Regulatory facts: General facts: Environmental: Recomme
Page: Phthalates
Topic editor: Leah Tait Lead author: author name Managing Group: Chemicals Group [This article has been tagged for expansion and updating. Please consider contributing!] Overview Phthalates are a class of high-volume chemicals that are ubiquitous in the e
Page: phthaltes
ehp.118-a80a phthaltes .pdf
Page: Phuong Lien Nguyen
Articles Written by Phuong Lien Nguyen Fluoride Content in Tea Articles Edited by Phuong Lien Nguyen
Page: Pickering Nuclear Generating Station
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview On February 25, 1971 the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, a Canadian nuclear power station located on the north shore of Lake Ontario in Pickering, Ontario, went critical. The Pi
Page: Pierre Joseph Pelletier (Spanish)
Información General Pierre Joseph Pelletier (22 de marzo de 1788 – 19 de julio de 1842) fue un naturalista y químico francés que en 1820 preparó el alcaloide activo de la corteza de la quina y lo llamó quinina. Después de este éxito aisló diversos alcaloi
Page: Pierre Ordinaire
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Dr. Pierre Ordinaire was a French doctor who, while living in Switzerland, was credited with creating the highly alcoholic elixir absinthe. The drink is a mixture of herbs and was mad
Page: Pierre Ordinaire(Spanish)
Información General Dr. Pierre Ordinaire was a French doctor who, while living in Switzerland, was credited with creating the highly alcoholic elixir absinthe. The drink is a mixture of herbs and was made popular in late-19th and early-20th Century France
Page: Pietro d'Abano
Información General Pietro d'Abano, o Petrus de Apono, o Aponensis (ca. 12501 2 Abano Terme – 1316), fue un médico, astrólogo, profesor y filósofo italiano que impartió cátedras en Padua, bien conocido por ambas habilidades médicas y su trabajo escolar. T
Page: Pietro de' Abano
  Overview Pietro d'Abano was an Italian physician, philosopher, and astrologer well renowned for both medical abilities and his scholastic work. He translated Hippocrates, Galen, and many other classic Greek medical texts into Latin. His major work, the
Page: Pigmy rattlesnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Sistrurus miliarius Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Easte
Page: Piperonyl Butoxide
Lead Editor: Dan Becker Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Piperonyl butoxide is a synthetic insecticide synergist that was developed in 1947. It is combined with other pesticides such as pyrethrins, pyrethroids, rotenone, and carbamates to enhance the
Page: Pithomyces sp.
Pithomyces sp. MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Sporidesmin D(1213-1217),Sporidesmolides (1217). PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  No reports of human infections(2). IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS on POTATO DEXTROSE AGAR (PDA) Rapid growth, flat, single multi-celled conidia pr
Page: Pitohui
Overview The Pitohui is the only poisonous bird known to date. An account of it was first published in Science in October of 1992. The Pitohui is endemic to Papua, New Guinea and owes its toxicity to batrachotoxins acquired from eating a certain species o
Page: Plasticizers
Phthalates
Page: Please donate! Click here to find out how
Please donate! The Food Ingredient and Health Research Institute (FIHRI) filed its Articles of Incorporation with the Secretary of State (SOS) in California on Friday, October 15, 2010.   This is the date the Articles of Incorporation were received by SOS
Page: Plutonium
Overview Plutonium (chemical symbol Pu) is a radioactive metal with Atomic Number 94. Plutonium is considered a man-made element, although scientists have found trace amounts of naturally occurring plutonium produced under highly unusual geologic circumst
Page: Poison - The Evolution of a Family of Fragrances
Overview Christian Dior (21 January 1905, Granville, Manche - 24 October 1957), was an influential French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses, also called Christian Dior. Headquartered in Paris, Christian D
Page: Poison Control Centers
  Overview First poison control center opened in Chicago 1953. Second poison control center opened at Duke University, NC in 1954 and the third opens in Boston 1955. History After World War II there was a proliferation of new drugs and chemicals in the ma
Page: poisons
Overview In the context of biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activityon the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism. The fields of medicine (particula
Page: polonium 210
Overview Polonium (pronounced /pɵˈloʊniəm/, po-LOH-nee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie. A rare and highly radioactive metalloid,1 polonium is chemically similar to bismuth2 an
Page: Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - (4 - nonylphenyl) - .omega. - hydroxy -, branched
Uses Automotive and home cleaning products Natural gas extraction Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Exposure to the eye can cause severe eye irritation and conjunctivitis with possible chemical burns (MSDS) Hazardous in case of inhalation and ing
Page: Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - (9Z) - 1 - oxo - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl - .omega. - (9Z) - 1 - oxo - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl oxy -
Overview Uses Oil Dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Eye, skin, and digestive tract irritant (MSDS2) Prolonged or repeated skin exposure may cause rash, acne, and dermatitis (MSDS1) Potential Effects on Marine Environment ANIMAL STUDIES
Page: Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - (nonylphenyl) - .omega. - hydroxy -
Overview Uses Hair coloring products Home cleaning products Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Suspected endocrine toxicant (EDF) ANIMAL STUDIES Eye irritant in rabbits (p. 4) (EPA HS) Mild dermal irritation in rabbit; no dermal corrosivity (EPA H
Page: Poly(oxy - 1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha. - (9Z) - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl - .omega. - hydroxy -
Overview Uses Pipe sealant Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health May contain traces of ethylene oxide, a suspected carcinogen. No further information available. (MSDS) Hazardous in case of eye contact or inhalation (MSDS) Slight skin i
Page: Polyacrylic Acid
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Nick Thorp Introduction Poly(acrylic acid) or PAA (CAS number 9003-1-04) is a type of polymer. The monomer of poly(acrylic acid) is Acrylic Acid. In a water solution at neutral pH, many of the side chains of PA
Page: Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
Lead Editor: Allison Camp Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Name: Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Use: Widely used as flame retardants Source: foam cushions, plastics (computer cases), some fabrics Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorp
Page: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Author Aleksandra Buha Lead Editor Maria M. Williams Note: We also have an abridged version of this article! Overview The term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refers to a ubiquitous group of several hundred chemically-related, environmentally pers
Page: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) - Abridged
Author Aleksandra Buha Lead Editor Maria M. Williams Note: we also offer a longer version of this article that includes more scientific details on the toxicology of this chemical group! Overview The term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) refers to a
Page: polymer
Introduction A polymer is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units typically connected by covalent chemical bonds. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and syn
Page: Poorly Soluble Air Particles
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: David G. Farrer   Introduction All of us are familiar with images of smog and haze surrounding cities and major highways. The intent of this document is to help the average citizen better understand the health
Page: Pope Clement
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Pope Clement II was relatively forgettable as pope after he gained the title as a result of political ties. However, a recent toxicological examination confirms the fact that Clement
Page: POPs: The Chemicals That Don't Go Away
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Portland Rum Riot
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Portland Rum Riot, also called the Maine Law Riot, was a brief but violent period of civil unrest that occurred in Portland, Maine on June 2, 1855 in response to the Maine law whi
Page: Porton Down
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Porton Down was established as the British government's primary center for chemical weapons research in 1916 (#Tucker, 2006). It is now used for all types of military research. External Links
Page: Portuguese Milestones
Portuguese Translation of Milestones of Toxicology Lições Apredidas: Marcos Miliários de Toxicologia (Agora disponível em mais de 12 idiomas) The Milestones of Toxicology poster was translated into Portuguese by Juliana DeCarvalho Anderson, a student at t
Page: Postmodern
Period Overview The people and events below are in alphabetical order. For a chronological list please see the Toxicology Timeline. The Postmodern Period stretches from post-World War II to the present. A Civil Action Aegean Sea oil tanker spill Ajka alum
Page: Potassium hydroxide (K(OH))
Overview Uses Food additive Ink Battery storage Home cleaning products Fertilizer Hair products Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Ingestion can cause severe pain, vomiting, diarrhea, shock, collapse (NIOSH) Severe irritant to eyes
Page: Potential Effects of Oil Dispersant Chemicals on Human Health and the Aquatic Environment
In 2011 the EPA released an aggregate list of all the chemicals found in oil dispersant products that the agency has approved for use in the event of an oil spill. Toxipedia conducted research on the potential impacts of these 57 chemicals on human health
Page: Pouokam Guy Bertrand
Country Correspondent: Government Agencies Non-Government Organizations Universities Professional Societies Poison Information/Control Centers Miscellaneous Resources Key Publications Legal Links About Canada Multilateral Organization Contacts Literature
Page: PowerPoint Presentations
General Toxicology Information PDF File on General Toxicological Principles "Reflections on the past, Report on the present, Envision the Future". NAHMMA (North American Hazardous Materials Management Association): 20th Annual Hazardous Materials Manageme
Page: Precautionary Assessment
Overview The goal of precautionary assessment (PA) is to move beyond risk assessment and allow communities and individual to incorporate their knowledge, values and ethics into a more comprehensive evaluation of a hazardous condition. The PA combines the
Page: Precautionary Principle
Topic Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Steven G. Gilbert Precaution is a systemic change that transforms the way we approach environmental regulation and decision making. This change is rooted in a paradigm shift away from risk/benefit and cost/bene
Page: Precautionary Principle - Reasonable, Rational, and Responsible
Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This is part of the op-ed portion of Toxipedia where experts contribute their thoughts about environmental and public health concerns. Introduction The precautionary principle is a reasonable, rational, and responsible appro
Page: Precautionary Principle - The Wingspread Statement
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Pregnancy and Developmental Toxicology
This page has been tagged for development. External Links [European Teratology Society (ETS)|European Teratology Society (ETS)}. Online. (accessed: 1 April 2003).The society is dedicated to the prevention of adverse effects on reproduction and development
Page: Presentation - Paper Topic
Presentation - paper information - draft Presentation Groups and Chosen Topics Hanford Leaking Tanks and Plumes Risk Assessment Wint Wai & Thanh-Hien Ngo Presentation Date: February 9th Lead Paint Risk Assessment Cristina Haworth & Mark Crippen Presentati
Page: presentation 1
Page: Press Releases
February 23, 2009 -- Toxipedia Announces Green Gardening Center IPMOPEDIA
Page: Prestige oil spill
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview The Prestige oil spill was largest environmental disaster in Spain's history. The Prestige was an oil tanker that ruptured a tank November 13, 2002 off the Galician coast and then bro
Page: Preventable Alcohol Exposure Harms Developing Brains
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Primavera Silenciosa
Información General Primavera silenciosa (Silent Spring en inglés) es un libro de Rachel Carson publicado en 1962 que advertía de los efectos perjudiciales de los pesticidas en el medio ambiente y culpaba a la industria química de la creciente contaminaci
Page: Principles of Toxicology, or A Small Dose of Toxicology
This content is from the free e-book A Small Dose of Toxicology by Steven G. Gilbert, founder and director of Toxipedia/INND. Introduction and History There are three basic and interwoven principles of toxicology: 1) dose/response, 2) hazard X exposure =
Page: Products of Interest
Products of special interest Diapers Oil Dispersant TransAlta Coal Plant WA
Page: Propanol, 1(or 2) - (2-methoxymethylethoxy) -
Overview Uses Paint/sealant produts Home cleaning products Pesticides Pet care products Oil dispersant Toxicity Potential Effects on Human Health Listed as a suspected reproductive toxin, kidney toxin, and potential CNS toxin (Haz-map) Repeated exposure t
Page: Propiconazole
Lead Editor: Maria M. Williams Lead Author: Elliott Thoreby Overview Propiconazole is a fungicide and antimicrobial that was first registered in 1981, used to protect grass grown for seed. The EPA expanded its tolerances to include several food crops in 1
Page: Propoxur
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Propoxur is a non-systemic carbamate insecticide introduced in 1959 and manufactured by Bayer and registered for use in the United States by the EPA and the state of California (#CDPR
Page: Propylene Glycol
Toxicity Human Health Effects Propylene glycol increases the amount of acid in the body. However, large amounts of propylene glycol are needed to cause this effect. (ASTDR) Propylene glycol breaks down at the same rate as ethylene glycol, although it does
Page: Protocolo de Ginebra 1925
Información General El Protocolo sobre la prohibición del empleo en la guerra de gases asfixiantes, tóxicos o similares y de medios bacteriológicos, usualmente llamado Protocolo de Ginebra, es un tratado de prohibición del uso de armas químicas y biológic
Page: Psychedelic Shop
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview 1966 - The Psychedelic Shop, the world's first head shop, opened on January 3, 1966 on Haight Street near Ashbury in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco.  A head shop is
Page: Pure Food and Drugs Act (1906)
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Supported by the Department of Agriculture's chief Chemist Harvey W. Wiley, the Food and Drugs Act was created to protect consumers from potentially dangerous drugs and food. The act
Page: PVC
Topic Editor: Nick Thorp Lead Author: Steven G. Gilbert History PVC was accidentally discovered first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann. On both occasions the polymer appeared as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl chloride th
Page: Pyrethroids
Physical Information Name: Pyrethroids Use: kill insects Source: synthetic chemistry, plants Recommended daily intake: none (not essential) Absorption: intestine, inhalation, skin Sensitive individuals: fetus, children, elderly Toxicity/symptoms: nerous s
Page: Pyridine
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Pyridine is an industrial solvent used in numerous industries and released into the environment primarily from these industrial activities (#ATSDR ToxFAQs). Chemical Description Pyrid
Page: Pyriminil
[This article has been tagged for development.] Overview Pyriminil is a yellow powder that is used as a rodenticide and is on the EPA's list of Extremely Hazardous Substances (EPA and #Scorecard). Signs of acute ingestion of pyriminil: abdominal pain, nau

Q

Page: Qin Shi Huang
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Qin Shi Huang (Emperor of Qin) (259 BCE - September 10, 210 BCE, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 B
Page: Quaker Oats
Quaker Oats - Radioactivity study Overview In the 1950s, researchers from Quaker Oats Company, MIT and Harvard University carried out experiments to determine how the nutrients from cereals travelled through the body. Parents of mentally retarded children
Page: Quality Assurance and Control
toxipedia's mission is to advance human and environmental health by providing comprehensive and accurate scientific information on the hazards and risks of chemical and physical agents. toxipedia also provides information on regulation, the history of tox
Page: Quality Assurance Review System
toxipedia's mission is to advance human and environmental health by providing comprehensive and accurate scientific information on the hazards and risks of chemical and physical agents. toxipedia also provides information on regulation, the history of tox
Page: quinine
QUININE EXTERNAL LINKS Quinine on Wikipedia
Page: Quitina
Información General El término quitina deriva de la palabra griega chiton χιτών, que significa túnica, haciendo referencia a su dureza.  La quitina es uno de los componentes principales de las paredes celulares de los hongos, del resistente exoesqueleto d
Page: Quotes
"If we make no effort to change direction, we will end up where we are headed." - Chinese Proverb "Each time a person stands up for an ideal, or acts to improve the lot of others, or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and
Page: Quotes, Literature, and Art
Return to Voices Through Walls main page From Walls: Enclosure & Ethics In The Landscape by Thomas Oles, University of Chicago Press, 2015 "It is only to say that, like all the objects that people make, walls have never been any one thing. They have alway

R

Page: RA
RA
Page: Race and Walls Separating People
  Race and Walls Separating People Prisons: Walls Around People Women and Walls Clothes and Walls Walls Demonstrating Power and Wealth Walls to Separate the Races Walls to Separate the Sexes Glass Ceiling as a Wall Voter Suppression: Walls that Block Voti
Page: Rachel Carson
Topic editor:Steven G. Gilbert Lead author:Steven G. Gilbert Overview Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 - April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist whose book Silent Spring is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement.
Page: Rachel Carson Spanish
Información General Rachel Louise Carson (27 de mayo de 1907 - 14 de abril de 1964) bióloga marina estadounidense que, a través de la publicación de Primavera Silenciosa (1962), contribuyó a la puesta en marcha de la moderna conciencia ambiental.  Rachel
Page: Rachel Carson: Silent Spring
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Radiation
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Name: Radiation Use: nuclear power, medical X-rays, medical diognostics, scientific research, cancer treament, cathode ray tube displays, household products (microwaves and cell phones), sunli
Page: Radiation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental heal
Page: Radioactive Decay
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Radioactive Decay is the set of processes that result in atomic nuclei emitting subatomic particles. The unit of measure for Radiation is the becquerel (Bq). Discovery Radioactivity w
Page: radioactive steam
Radioactive Stream Review TXP-1 Contents 1. Toxicological Perspective 2. Biography 3. Internal Links 4. References 5. External Links Toxicological perspective Biography Internal Links References External Links
Page: Radium
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Radium is a radioactive chemical element which has the symbol Ra and atomic number 88. Its appearance is almost pure white, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, turning black.
Page: radium girls
Overview "Not to worry," their bosses told them. "If you swallow any radium, it'll make your cheeks rosy." The women at Radium Dial sometimes painted their teeth and faces and then turned off the lights for a laugh. From: 'Radium Girls' By Martha Irvine,
Page: Radium therapy
RADIUM THERAPY Review TXP-1 Table of Contents #Sources #Properties #Uses #Health Effects #Precautions #Current Events #Internal Links #External Links #Additional Resources #References SOURCES PROPERTIES USES HEALTH EFFECTS PRECAUTIONS CURRENT EVENTS INTER
Page: Radon
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Beredu Teressa Name: Alpha Particles Atomic number: 86 Atomic mass: (222) g.mol -1 Electronegativity according to Pauling: Unknown Density: 9.96*10 -3 g.cm 3 at 20°C Melting point: - 71 °C Boiling point: - 62 °
Page: Raimundo Lúlio
{authors} Authors: Mauricio Homem-de-Mello {authors} Visão Geral Raimundo Lúlio (1232-29 de junho de 1315) foi um monge franciscano terciário que viveu onde hoje em dia existe a Espanha. Lullus contribuiu grandemente para muitos campos, em especial a teor
Page: Rainforest hognosed pitviper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Porthidium nasutum Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Procoagulants and Haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: few fatalities Toxicity/symptoms: An
Page: Ramon Llull
Información General Raymundus Lulio (1232 - Junio 29, 1315) (a veces Ramon Llull o Raimundo Lulio) era un monje franciscano terciario de lo que hoy es España. Lullus contribuido en gran medida a muchos campos, especialmente la teoría de la elección y la t
Page: Ranijet Ghosh
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Dr. Ranijet Ghosh was a chemist at Britain's Imperial Chemical Industries and was the first to discover the G-Class nerve agents. Background and Work After it was discovered that DDT was losin
Page: Raquel Crider
Raquel has a Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology with an emphasis in epidemiology and mathematical models. Her dissertation was a stochastic model of how heroin spreads from person to person showing that the current model claiming epidemics are self limiting
Page: Rates of Global Tobacco Use
The maps below indicate the use of tobacco products by men and women in countries around the world. The data is based on surveys taken from the WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008. Smoking any tobacco product, %, Males Smoking any tobacco prod
Page: Raymundus Lullus
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Raymundus Lullus (1232 - June 29, 1315) (sometimes Ramon Llull or Raymond Lully) was a tertiary Franciscan monk from what is present-day Spain. Lullus contributed greatly to many fiel
Page: REACH
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) was signed into law December 13, 2006 by the European Union (EU). The law will regulate 30,000 of the high volume chem
Page: Recognition and Management of Fluoride Toxicity
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead authors: Hardy Limeback and Heather Gingerich Introduction Fluoride, well established as one of the most toxic elements known to humans when ingested in large doses, is likely among the least understood medicines that
Page: Recommendation and Conclusions for Alcohol
Reducing Exposure Reducing exposure is easy in concept but is usually more difficult in practice. Most importantly, women who are planning on becoming pregnant or who are pregnant should not consume alcohol. Men need to support and encourage women's avoid
Page: Red spitting cobra
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Naja pallida Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Postsynaptic neurotoxins, cytotoxins (necrotoxins) Manner of intake: Absorption through eye tissues and bites Absorption: Human tolerance:
Page: Red-bellied swamp snake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Hemiaspis signata Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Unknown Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic range: Eastern Australia, coastal Que
Page: Redefining Wealth
Relevant topics on Toxipedia: Ethical Economics, Ethical Considerations, Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Toxicology "For the moment a lot of attention is given to economic concerns, and these problems at hand easily eclipse all others. But the remedie
Page: Reducing Exposure to Arsenic
The toxicity of chronic exposure to arsenic is well established and the best recommendation is to avoid arsenic exposure entirely. The most common home exposure is from contaminated drinking water and arsenic-treated lumber. Certain areas of the country h
Page: Reducing Exposure to Lead
While there are standards for lead exposure, at this time there is no level that is considered safe, so the best policy is to avoid lead exposure altogether. This is difficult because as a contaminant in food, water or dust, lead cannot be seen, tasted, o
Page: References - various writings on walls
Return to Voices Through Walls main page Historical / Current Walls Photos Of International Borders That Aren't What You'd Expect Aerial photos of international boarders from GOOD - A magazine for the global citizen Border Between US-Mexico compared to Ho
Page: Reflections-BW
REFLECTIONS ON THE SIXTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE TRINITY TEST by Bill Witherup July 16, 2005, will be the sixtieth anniversary of the plutonium-fueled atomic bomb, tested at White Sands, New Mexico. On July 15th and 16th the Los Alamos Study Group, a nuclea
Page: Regulatory Standards for Alcohol
Advice or regulation related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy was slow to arrive even following the documentation of fetal effects, and more needs to done to discourage alcohol consumption during pregnancy. • 1981 - US Surgeon General first advised
Page: Regulatory Standards for Arsenic
EPA - Drinking water 10 μg/L (10 ppb) EPA - RfD - 0.3 μg/kg/day (inorganic chronic exposure) OSHA - Workplace air - 0.5 mg/m3 ATSDR - MRL - 0.3 μg/kg/day (chronic exposure) Next: Recommendation and Conclusions Back to Arsenic main page
Page: Rekek Negga
Graduated King College with a Bachelors in Science.
Page: Renee Dufault
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Renee Dufault Overview After working twenty years in the environmental health field, Renee Dufault (aka Ms. D) now teaches special education part-time and serves as FIHRI's founder and Executive Director.  Prio
Page: Research Ethics
Resources The Collaborative Initiative for Research Ethics in Environmental Health- This project provides course development, training, educational resources and case study development on improving research ethics in environmental health. National Institu
Page: Research Resources Utilized
Return to bibliography main page AGRICOLA African Journals Online AGRIS Airiti Library (Taiwan) Arto (Reference Database of Finnish Articles) arXiv.org (Cornell University) Australian National Bibliographic Database Austrian National Bibliography Belarus
Page: Resources
Readings The following are examples of advocacy/special-interest literature. Unstoppable Global Warming: Every 1,500 Years. Dennis Avery and S. Fred Singer, Hudson Institute, 2007. Please Don't Poop in My Salad and Other Essays Opposing the War Against Sm
Page: Resources on Religion and the Environment
Sometimes called "creation care" or respecting God's Earth. The following was in part compiled by Science and Environmental Health Network. Interfaith Power and Light: works with faith communities around the country to cut energy use and switch to cleaner
Page: Respiratory Toxicology and Asthma
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert This page has been tagged for development. Current Events Immune Systems Increasingly On Attack. From The Washington Post. Teaching Resources Powerpoint Presentation on Asthma   External Links
Page: Revista de Toxicología y Farmacología Aplicada
Información General Revista de Toxicología y Farmacología Aplicada - 1959 to present TAAP es una publicación mensual que contiene artículos científicos y artículos que tienen que ver con los campos de la toxicología y la fisiología. La revista de Toxicolo
Page: Rhine Valley
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Rhine River Valley Incident (November 1, 1986) In Basel, Switzerland the Rhine River was polluted after a fire at the Sandoz Laboratory leaked over 30 tons of Chemicals List. The chem
Page: Rhinoceros viper
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Bitis nasicornis Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Possibly Coagulants, and/or haemorrhagins Manner of intake: Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic rang
Page: Rhizomucor sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allregenic (1283) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Rare cases of human zygomycosis (1,2,1284), cutaneous lesions (1,1285), rhinofacial mycosis(1,2,1286,1287), pulmonary(2,1288,1289), disseminated infection (2,1289,1290) in immunocompromised patients
Page: Rhizopus sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (68,81,343,735,1291) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Rhizonin A(3,1292) PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Important agent of human zygomycosis (1,2,1284), mucormycosis (1,2), rhinocerebral (1,2,568,1293,1294), ocular (161,1295,1296), pulmonary(1,2,129
Page: Rhodotorula sp.
ALLERGENICITY Allergenic (341,510,556,1313) MYCOTOXINS PRODUCED Antibacterial compounds (515). PATHOGENICITY IN HUMANS  Nosocomial invasive diseases (466), meningitis (2,261,1314,1315), endocarditis (2,1316,1317), eye infections (1,122,1318), peritonitis
Page: Richard Doll
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll (October 28, 1912 - July 24, 2005) was a British epidemiologist, physiologist, and a pioneer in the research linking smoking to health problems. He wor
Page: Richard Hurst
Page: Richard Mead
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Richard Mead (or Meade) (August 11, 1673 - February 16, 1754) was born. Mead was an English physician who wrote A Mechanical Account of Poisons in Several Essays, the first English-la
Page: Richard Mead (Spanish)
Información General Richard Mead (o Meade) (11 agosto 1673 - 16 febrero 1754). Mead fue un médico Inglés, que escribió A Mechanical Account of Poisons en varios ensayos, el primer libro en idioma Inglés dedicada a los animales y las plantas venenosas.  Ta
Page: Richard Meade
  Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Overview Richard Mead or Richard Meade (August 11, 1673 – February 16, 1754) was an English physician. in late 17th and early 18th century London who was accredited with writing the first En
Page: Richard Warner
Richard Warner musician and health advocate is perhaps best known for his two classic New Age albums, Quiet Heart and Spirit Wind. These recordings feature Richard on bamboo and alto flutes. On his latest release, Spirit of the Tao Te Ching, Richard conti
Page: Ricin
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Leah Tait Overview Ricin is a highly toxin protein. It is a by-product of castor oil production. The U.S. military experimented with using ricin as a chemical warfare agent in the 1940s. There have been a few h
Page: Rick Gleason
Rick Gleason MPH has worked for the Federal OSHA and State WISHA as an inspector for thirteen years and has been teaching for the last 12 years, currently employed at the University of Washington's Department of Environmental and Occupational Health. He a
Page: Ridge-nosed rattlesnake
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert add general info Crotalus willardi Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: possible Procoagulants Manner of intake: bite Absorption: Human tolerance: Toxicity/symptoms: Antivenom: Geographic
Page: Rinkhals
Topic editor: Steven G. Gilbert Lead author: Steven G. Gilbert Hemachatus haemachatus Physical Information Venom name: Toxins: Neurotoxins, cytotoxins (necrotoxins) Manner of intake: Absorption through eye tissues and bites Absorption: Human tolerance: To
Page: Risk Assess
Page: Risk Assessment
This text is adapted from a chapter of A Small Dose of Toxicology by Steven G. Gilbert. For additional citations on risk assessment topics, see A Global Bibliographic Perspective on Toxicology: Risk Assessment! Introduction Evaluation of the potential adv
Page: Risk Assessment - Cumulative Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Boobis A.R., et al. 2008. Cumulative risk assessment of pesticide residues in food. Toxicology Letters. 180:137-150 Callahan M. and Sexton K. 2007. If cumulative risk assessment is the answer, what is the question? E
Page: Risk Assessment - Air Pollution Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   ICF Consulting. 2004. Air Toxics Risk Assessment Reference Library, Volume 1: Technical Resource Manual (EPA/453/K-04/001A). A report prepared for the U.S. EPA. Fairfax, VA. ICF Consulting. 2004. Air Toxics Risk Asse
Page: Risk Assessment - an Introduction
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK AND SOCIETY
Page: Risk Assessment - Aquatic Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Matthiessen P. 1998. Peer reviewed: aquatic risk assessment of chemicals: is it working? Environmental Science & Technology. 32(19):460A-1A.
Page: Risk Assessment - Assessment Factors
Return to risk assessment main page.   Falk-Filipsson A., et al. 2007. Assessment factors—applications in health risk assessment of chemicals. Environmental Research. 104(1):108-27. Vermeire T., et al. 1999. Assessment factors for human health risk assess
Page: Risk Assessment - Background Concentrations and Levels
Return to risk assessment main page.
Page: Risk Assessment - Benchmark Dose
Return to risk assessment main page.   Barnes D.G., et al. 1995. Benchmark dose workshop: criteria for use of a benchmark dose to estimate a reference dose. Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology. 21(2):296-306. Budtz-Jørgensen E., et al. 2004. Effects of e
Page: Risk Assessment - Biomarkers and Biomonitoring
Return to risk assessment main page.   Albertini R., et al. 2006. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessments. Environmental Health Perspectives. 114:1755-1762. Clarkson T.W. 1987. The role of biomarkers in reproductive and
Page: Risk Assessment - Cancer Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Aiello-Laws L. 2011. Genetic cancer risk assessment. Seminars in Oncology Nursing. 27(1):13-20. Bull R.J. 1990. Cancer risk assessment: importance of identifying mechanisms of action. JAWWA. 82(10):57-60. Brooks K.A.
Page: Risk Assessment - Carcinogenic Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Abraham J. and Ballinger R. 2012. Science, politics and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture? Social Science & Medicine. 75(8
Page: Risk Assessment - Chemical and Chemical Mixtures Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Backhaus T., et al. 2010. Chemical risk assessment: pressures, perceptions and expectations. Integrated Environmental Assessment & Management. 6(2):260-72. Bond J.A. and Medinsky M.A. 1995. Health risk assessment of
Page: Risk Assessment - Children's Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Armstrong T.W., et al. 2002. A tiered approach to assessing children’s exposure: a review of methods and data. Toxicology Letters. 127(1-3): 11-9. Brown R.C., et al. 2008. Children’s health risk assessment: incorpora
Page: Risk Assessment - Critical Effect Size
Return to risk assessment main page.   Dekkers S., et al. 2001. Critical effect sizes in toxicological risk assessment: a comprehensive and critical evaluation. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology. 10(1-2):33-52. Munkittrick K.R., et al.2009. A review
Page: Risk Assessment - Dermal Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Geode H.A., et al. 2003. Classification of dermal exposure modifiers and assignment of values for a risk assessment toolkit. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 47:609-18. Marquart J., et al. 2003. Determinants of dermal
Page: Risk Assessment - Dietary Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Institute of Medicine. 2002. Dietary Risk Assessment in the WIC Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. U.S. EPA. 2000. Guidance for Refining Anticipated Residue Estimates for Use in Acute Dietary Probab
Page: Risk Assessment - Dose Response
Return to risk assessment main page.   Calabrese E.J. 2003. Toxicological diversity: making room for the U-shaped dose-response. Human & Experimental Toxicology. 22(9):465-6. Calabrese E.J. 2007. Threshold dose—response model—RIP: 1911 to 2006. BioEssays.
Page: Risk Assessment - Ecological and Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Baird D.J., et al. 2008. Trait-based ecological risk assessment (TERA): the new frontier? Integrated Environmental Assessment & Management. 4(1):2-3. Barnthouse L.W. 1994. Issues in ecological risk assessment: the CR
Page: Risk Assessment - Environmental Risk Assessment
Return to risk assessment main page.   Ball D.J. 2002. Environmental risk assessment and the intrusion of bias. Environment International. 28(6):529-44. Bridges T.S. and Glaser D. 2008. Evidence of internecine conflict within the practice of environmental
Page: Risk Assessment - Exposure Factors
Return to risk assessment main page.   Moya J. and Phillips L. 2002. Overview of the use of the USEPA exposure factors handbook. International Journal of Hygiene & Environmental Health. 205(1-2):155-9. Phillips L and Moya J. 2013. The evolution of EPA’s e
Page: Risk Assessment - Exposure Limits, Values, and Protective Action Criteria
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Background Living organisms interact regularly with chemical and microbial agents in our environment, in our food, and in the products we use everyday. Risk assessment seeks to understand the body or ecosystem's response to those interactions, with the go
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