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Toxipedia was launched in June 2006 and has steadily grown, now offering more than a thousand pages of information on toxic chemicals, ethical considerations, laws and regulation, the history of toxicology, green chemistry, and much more. 

Our goal is to provide scientific information in the context of history, society, and culture so that the public has the information needed to make sound choices that protect both human and environmental health.

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Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward

#19: Linus Pauling, Scientist for the Ages

"It is sometimes said that science has nothing to do with morality. This is wrong. Science is the search for truth, the effort to understand the world; it involves the rejection of bias, of dogma, of revelation, but not the rejection of morality." - Linus Carl Pauling


Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 - August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century in any field. Pauling was among the first scientists to work in the fields of quantum chemistry, molecular biology, and orthomolecular medicine and is one of only two people to have been awarded a Nobel Prize in two different fields (the Chemistry and Peace Prizes), the other being Marie Curie (the Chemistry and Physics Prizes).

During the beginning of the Manhattan Project, Robert Oppenheimer invited Pauling to be in charge of the chemistry division of the project, but he declined, not wanting to uproot his family. Pauling had been practically apolitical until World War II, but the war’s aftermath and his wife's pacifism changed his life profoundly. From the late 1950s until his death, Pauling shifted his focus from science to political activism; among other activities, he was involved with the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) and both he and his wife Ava were involved with Women Strike for Peace and Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. His book No More War! was published in 1958, and he delivered a keynote speech, "Our Choice: Atomic Death or World Law," at the Fifth World Conference Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs in Hiroshima in August 1959. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1963.

It is paramount for scientists, politicians, and the public at large to examine ethical considerations as we as a society choose our path forward and make decisions based upon scientific information that is often limited. We must endeavor to ensure a healthy sustainable future for all and an environment that allows children to grow and flourish to their full genetic potential.


Learn more:

Environmental Health Effects of Marijuana Cultivation

Following the legalization of recreational marijuana in Washington and three other states, questions are arising about the environmental health impacts of marijuana cultivation, particularly in terms of energy and pesticide use. We are pleased to present a new article exploring the topic! Learn more about marijuana's environmental health impacts here!

Toxic Pollution and Climate Change


The problems of toxic pollution and climate change have traditionally been explored and addressed as separate issues. However, these phenomena interact and overlap in various ways: activities and industries that release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere often also release toxic chemicals, and climate change can change the activity of toxic chemicals in the environment. Our new article provides an outline of some of these intersections, with the goal of spurring a more holistic understanding of these critical issues. Read the article here!

New Resource: A Global Bibliographic Perspective of Toxicology


Toxipedia is pleased to host A Global Bibliographic Perspective of Toxicology, a website devoted to the history of toxicology and allied sciences. Based on an article published in the International Journal of Toxicology in 2006, the bibliography contains over 2,500 searchable references compiled by Dale A. Stirling, an environmental and public health historian.

Topic areas include Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics, the Toxicology Profession, Global Practice of Toxicology, and Toxicology Concepts, Disciplines, and Theories.

To access the bibliography, please visit or!

Facts on Crumb Rubber 

We are excited to announce, our new page on crumb rubber, the controversial material used as infill in artificial turf fields. Content includes ingredient information, exposure routes, health hazards, overviews of scientific studies, position statements, alternative materials, and more! Warm thanks to Laura Johnson of the Washington Alliance for Non-toxic Play and Athletic Fields for authoring this page. Visit the page here!


Milestones of Toxicology Poster Translated into Serbian Cyrillic and Latin!

The translation of the Milestones of toxicology poster into Serbian Cyrillic and Serbian Latin was coordinated by Danijela Đukić-Ćosić PhD, Department of Toxicology "Academic Danilo Soldatović", University of Belgrade – Faculty of Pharmacy. Danijela is currently working to translate "A Small Dose of Toxicology" into Serbian. A PDF file of the Serbian Cyrillic version of the Milestones of Toxicology poster can be downloaded HERE. A PDF file of the Serbian Latin version of the Milestones of Toxicology poster can be downloaded HERE. The Latin alphabet poster will be understood in Croatia and Montenegro, and the Cyrillic alphabet poster in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia, all former Yugoslav republics, and in Bulgaria, because the Bulgarian and Serbian languages are similar. Thank you Danijela! 


New Resource: A Story of Health

Case-based learning has long been used in medical education. A Story of Health is an eBook that grounds the science of health in stories of fictional people, their families, and communities to enable readers to explore the risk factors for disease as well as how to prevent disease and promote health and resilience. Using the setting of a family reunion as a backdrop, the book explores how multiple environments influence our health across the lifespan.

The stories are accessible to an educated lay audience with more technical sections for scientists and medical professionals who can access free continuing education credits through the eBook. A Story of Health was developed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE); the University of California, San Francisco, Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (UCSF PEHSU); the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA (OEHHA); and the Science and Environmental Health Network (SEHN).

"Scientists must make both science education and community outreach a much more central part of the scientific culture."

-Bruce Alberts, Editor-in-chief, Science magazine (Dec 3, 2010 editorial)