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Toxipedia was launched in June 2006 and has steadily grown, now offering more than a thousand pages of information on toxic chemicals, ethical considerations, laws and regulation, the history of toxicology, green chemistry, and much more. 

Our goal is to provide scientific information in the context of history, society, and culture so that the public has the information needed to make sound choices that protect both human and environmental health.

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Arabic Translation of A Small Dose of Toxicology Released!

We are thrilled to announce that the Arabic translation of A Small Dose of Toxicology: The Health Effects of Common Chemicals by Steven G. Gilbert, PhD, DABT, is now fully available in Arabic! We sincerely thank Ansam Sawalha, PhD, associate professor of pharmacology and toxicology, founding director, Poison Control Center, An-Najah National University, Palestinian authority area, and her students for their collaboration. The edition in Arabic is available as a PDF in its entirety (5.35 MB) or as individual chaptersVisit our website to download for free, and please share with your colleagues who work with Arabic-speaking communities! 

Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward

A series of articles exploring historical events that provide an important lesson for ensuring a more sustainable and healthy environment, as well as current issues affecting the trajectory of environmental health awareness and advocacy.

#25: Environmental Justice, or Rather Injustice

The EPA defines environmental justice as the "fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies." (Image from NIEHS.)

Many place the start of the environmental justice movement at Warren County, North Carolina in 1982. State officials decided that the Shocco Township would be the perfect site for a hazardous waste landfill that would receive 30,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The state, with the permission of the EPA, built the hazardous waste dump only 7 feet above the water table instead of the required 50 feet. The local residents, mostly rural and low-income African Americans, were joined in protest by national civil rights groups, environmental groups, clergy, and members of the Congressional Black Caucus. African American civil rights activist Benjamin Chavis described this incident as environmental racism, which refers to the enactment or enforcement of any policy, practice, or regulation that negatively affects the environment of low-income and/or racially homogeneous communities as compared with affluent communities. In 1987, in a defining report, the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice explored the idea of environmental racism in "Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States”.

Environmental injustice and environmental racism, where one group of people are exploited to benefit another, are still prevalent in the US and worldwide. In the US, it is estimated that a higher percentage of hazardous waste dumps are located in or near lower-income or minority communities. The issue of environmental justice can also be considered from a more broad, international perspective. For example, many of the global impacts of climate change are felt acutely in regions with historically lower carbon emissions. The just and fair treatment of all people, communities, and the environment is essential in creating a more sustainable and healthy world where children can grow and flourish to their full genetic potential.

Learn more about environmental justice:

Environmental Health Effects of Marijuana Cultivation

Following the legalization of recreational marijuana in Washington and three other states, questions are arising about the environmental health impacts of marijuana cultivation, particularly in terms of energy and pesticide use. We are pleased to present a new article exploring the topic! Learn more about marijuana's environmental health impacts here!

Toxic Pollution and Climate Change


The problems of toxic pollution and climate change have traditionally been explored and addressed as separate issues. However, these phenomena interact and overlap in various ways: activities and industries that release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere often also release toxic chemicals, and climate change can change the activity of toxic chemicals in the environment. Our new article provides an outline of some of these intersections, with the goal of spurring a more holistic understanding of these critical issues. Read the article here!

New Resource: A Global Bibliographic Perspective of Toxicology


Toxipedia is pleased to host A Global Bibliographic Perspective of Toxicology, a website devoted to the history of toxicology and allied sciences. Based on an article published in the International Journal of Toxicology in 2006, the bibliography contains over 2,500 searchable references compiled by Dale A. Stirling, an environmental and public health historian.

Topic areas include Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics, the Toxicology Profession, Global Practice of Toxicology, and Toxicology Concepts, Disciplines, and Theories.

To access the bibliography, please visit or!

Facts on Crumb Rubber 

We are excited to announce, our new page on crumb rubber, the controversial material used as infill in artificial turf fields. Content includes ingredient information, exposure routes, health hazards, overviews of scientific studies, position statements, alternative materials, and more! Warm thanks to Laura Johnson of the Washington Alliance for Non-toxic Play and Athletic Fields for authoring this page. Visit the page here!


Milestones of Toxicology Poster Translated into Serbian Cyrillic and Latin!

The translation of the Milestones of toxicology poster into Serbian Cyrillic and Serbian Latin was coordinated by Danijela Đukić-Ćosić PhD, Department of Toxicology "Academic Danilo Soldatović", University of Belgrade – Faculty of Pharmacy. Danijela is currently working to translate "A Small Dose of Toxicology" into Serbian. A PDF file of the Serbian Cyrillic version of the Milestones of Toxicology poster can be downloaded HERE. A PDF file of the Serbian Latin version of the Milestones of Toxicology poster can be downloaded HERE. The Latin alphabet poster will be understood in Croatia and Montenegro, and the Cyrillic alphabet poster in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia, all former Yugoslav republics, and in Bulgaria, because the Bulgarian and Serbian languages are similar. Thank you Danijela! 


New Resource: A Story of Health

Case-based learning has long been used in medical education. A Story of Health is an eBook that grounds the science of health in stories of fictional people, their families, and communities to enable readers to explore the risk factors for disease as well as how to prevent disease and promote health and resilience. Using the setting of a family reunion as a backdrop, the book explores how multiple environments influence our health across the lifespan.

The stories are accessible to an educated lay audience with more technical sections for scientists and medical professionals who can access free continuing education credits through the eBook. A Story of Health was developed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE); the University of California, San Francisco, Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (UCSF PEHSU); the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA (OEHHA); and the Science and Environmental Health Network (SEHN).

"Scientists must make both science education and community outreach a much more central part of the scientific culture."

-Bruce Alberts, Editor-in-chief, Science magazine (Dec 3, 2010 editorial)