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Toxipedia was launched in June 2006 and has steadily grown, now offering more than a thousand pages of information on toxic chemicals, ethical considerations, laws and regulation, the history of toxicology, green chemistry, and much more. 

Our goal is to provide scientific information in the context of history, society, and culture so that the public has the information needed to make sound choices that protect both human and environmental health.

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Facts on Food Coloring










In 1950 1.6 million pounds of synthetic colorings, or 12mg per person per day, were certified for use in foods in the US. In 2015, 17 million pounds, or 67mg per person per day, were certified. What are these synthetic chemicals and their health hazards, and how are they regulated? Do synthetic food colorings affect behavior and attention in children? Find out in our new article on food colorings!

New Resource: A Global Bibliographic Perspective of Toxicology


Toxipedia is pleased to host A Global Bibliographic Perspective of Toxicology, a website devoted to the history of toxicology and allied sciences. Based on an article published in the International Journal of Toxicology in 2006, the bibliography contains over 2,500 searchable references compiled by Dale A. Stirling, an environmental and public health historian.

Topic areas include Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics, the Toxicology Profession, Global Practice of Toxicology, and Toxicology Concepts, Disciplines, and Theories.

To access the bibliography, please visit or!

Lessons Learned: Looking Back to Go Forward

#22: April 21st: An Interesting Day in Bioethics

"It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution." - Garrett Hardin (“The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science, 1968)

"A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise."  - Aldo Leopold (A Sand County Almanac, 1949)

"An ethic, ecologically, is a limitation on freedom of action in the struggle for existence."  - Aldo Leopold


April 21st is an interesting day in bioethics. On this day in 1915 Garrett Hardin (April 21, 1915 - September 14, 2003), an influential ecologist most famous for his 1968 paper “The Tragedy of the Commons,” was born. Also on this day in 1948 America’s first bioethicist Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948), an ecologist, forester, and environmentalist, died. Bioethics explores the ethical questions that arise in the relationships between life sciences, environment, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, and philosophy.

Garrett Hardin was trained as a microbiologist but was an influential ecologist. His paper "The Tragedy of the Commons" outlined his theory as to why commonly held resources often degrade. The paper was meant to focus attention on the lack of technical solutions to arrest overpopulation, but its explanation for why commonly held resources such as groundwater, grazing land, and fisheries are prone to inevitably degrade has influenced the development of environmental and economic policies for resource management. The key message was that management, not technology, is essential to preserve and protect the common resources.

Aldo Leopold wrote A Sand County Almanac, published in 1949, and was influential in the development of modern environmental ethics and the wilderness preservation movement. He is considered by many to be the first American bioethicist.

Taken together, their writings present powerful arguments that regulation is essential to protect human and environmental health and ensure that all life can reach and maintain its full potential.


Learn more on Toxipedia:


Facts on Crumb Rubber 

We are excited to announce, our new page on crumb rubber, the controversial material used as infill in artificial turf fields. Content includes ingredient information, exposure routes, health hazards, overviews of scientific studies, position statements, alternative materials, and more! Warm thanks to Laura Johnson of the Washington Alliance for Non-toxic Play and Athletic Fields for authoring this page. Visit the page here!


Milestones of Toxicology Poster Translated into Serbian Cyrillic and Latin!

The translation of the Milestones of toxicology poster into Serbian Cyrillic and Serbian Latin was coordinated by Danijela Đukić-Ćosić PhD, Department of Toxicology "Academic Danilo Soldatović", University of Belgrade – Faculty of Pharmacy. Danijela is currently working to translate "A Small Dose of Toxicology" into Serbian. A PDF file of the Serbian Cyrillic version of the Milestones of Toxicology poster can be downloaded HERE. A PDF file of the Serbian Latin version of the Milestones of Toxicology poster can be downloaded HERE. The Latin alphabet poster will be understood in Croatia and Montenegro, and the Cyrillic alphabet poster in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia, all former Yugoslav republics, and in Bulgaria, because the Bulgarian and Serbian languages are similar. Thank you Danijela! 


New Resource: A Story of Health

Case-based learning has long been used in medical education. A Story of Health is an eBook that grounds the science of health in stories of fictional people, their families, and communities to enable readers to explore the risk factors for disease as well as how to prevent disease and promote health and resilience. Using the setting of a family reunion as a backdrop, the book explores how multiple environments influence our health across the lifespan.

The stories are accessible to an educated lay audience with more technical sections for scientists and medical professionals who can access free continuing education credits through the eBook. A Story of Health was developed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); the Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE); the University of California, San Francisco, Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (UCSF PEHSU); the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA (OEHHA); and the Science and Environmental Health Network (SEHN).

"Scientists must make both science education and community outreach a much more central part of the scientific culture."

-Bruce Alberts, Editor-in-chief, Science magazine (Dec 3, 2010 editorial)