In 2011 the EPA released an aggregate list of all the chemicals found in oil dispersant products that the agency has approved for use in the event of an oil spill. Toxipedia conducted research on the potential impacts of these 57 chemicals on human health and the environment. Below is a chart that summarizes the findings.

The last column of the chart links to oil dispersant products that the specific chemical is found in. Many of the manufacturers of oil dispersant products have not disclosed the chemicals found in their product. The term "Other" in this column designates that this chemical could possibly be in a product whose chemical ingredients have yet to be released.

See a word, phrase, or abbreviation that you don't recognize. Head to the Oil Dispersant Glossary for definitions.

Information highlighted in GREEN indicates potential effects of high concern to human health.

Information highlighted in BLUE indicated potential effects of high concern to the marine environment.

Chemical

Potential Human Health Impacts

Potential Marine Environment Impacts

Oil Dispersant Product

1,2- Propanediol
(Propylene Glycol)

CAS#- 57-55-6

• Listed as a suspected immunotoxicant, neurotoxicant, respiratory toxicant, and skin and sense organ toxicant (EDF)   
• Chronic exposure to propylene glycol may cause lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, stupor, and seizures. (HSDB)
• Chronic: Exposure to large doses may cause central nervous system depression. Chronic ingestion may cause lactic acidosis and possible seizures. Exposures to propylene glycol having no adverse effects on the mother should have no effect on the fetus. Birth defects are unlikely. In animal studies, propylene glycol has been shown not to interfere with reproduction.  (MSDS)


• Frequent skin exposure to propylene glycol can sometimes irritate the skin. (ASTDR) 
• Propylene glycol increases the amount of acid in the body. However, large amounts of propylene glycol are needed to cause this effect. (ASTDR)
• Propylene glycol breaks down at the same rate as ethylene glycol, although it does not form harmful crystals when it breaks down. (ASTDR)

From the MSDS:
• Eye: May cause slight transient injury.
• Skin: May be absorbed through damaged or abraded skin in harmful amounts. Allergic reactions have been reported.
         • A single prolonged skin exposure is not likely to result in the material being absorbed in harmful amounts.
         • Prolonged contact is essentially non-irritating to skin. Repeated exposures may cause problems.
         • Negative results have consistently been obtained in guinea pigs studies for sensitization.
         • 1,2-Propylene glycol is not considered an occupational skin sensitizer.
• Ingestion: May cause gastrointestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Low hazard for usual industrial handling.
        • May cause hemoglobinuric nephrosis. May cause changes in surface EEG.
• Inhalation: Low hazard for usual industrial handling. Inhalation of a mist of this material may cause respiratory tract irritation.
• Material has a low vapor pressure at room temperature, so exposure to vapor is not likely.

• Not likely to exist in large amounts in the air (ASTDR)
• It will break down within several days to a week in water and soil (ASTDR)
• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids (HSDB)

OTHER

1-Dodecanamine, N,N - dimethyl - , N-oxide
 
CAS#- 1643-20-5

• Very destructive of mucous membranes. (MSDS)
• Corrosive- causes burns. (MSDS)                                                                                                     


• Toxicology not fully investigated (MSDS)
• Harmful if inhaled and in contact with skin. (MSDS)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• In a study on rabbit exposure through the skin, a 30% concentration of the chemical caused moderate to severe erythema and edema and cell death (HSDB)
• In studies on mice exposure through inhalation, no major toxic effects were observed (HSDB)

• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediments (HSDB)

OTHER

1 - Propanaminium, 3 - amino - N - (carboxymethyl) - N,N - dimethyl -, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts
 
CAS#- 61789-40-0

• Listed as a suspected immunotixcant and skin or sense organ toxicant (EDF)                        


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                                                       
• In a study, rats fed an undiluted dose of the chemical experienced salivation, diarrhea, and decreased activity. Effects are greater as dose increases. (EPA)
○ All females died while all males eventually recovered. (EPA)
○ LD50 for male rats is greater than 1.8 g/kg of body weight (EPA)

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In tests, LC50 for zebrafish over 96 hours exposure was 6.7mg/L (EPA)
• In a study on the effects to freshwater fish, all fish died during the fist 24 hours of exposure to 8mg/L water. Before death they showed a decrease in mobility and breathing difficulties (EPA)
• In tests, EC50 for water fleas over a 24 hour exposure was 3.7 mg/L (EPA)

OTHER

2(3H)-Benzothiazolethione, sodium salt (1:1)
 
CAS#- 2492-26-4

• Its parent chemical is listed as a possible carcinogen by US EPA (PANNA)
• Listed as moderately toxic (HSDB)
• Patch tests of the chemical on humans caused lesions and vesiculations. (HSDB)
• Contact with the eyes caused opacity or ulceration of the cornea, inflammation of the iris, redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and partial eversion of the eye lids, and destruction or irreversible tissue change in 24 hours or less (rabbit) (NOAA)


• A known skin sensitizer and cause of contact dermatitis (HSDB) 


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                            
• Mice who received 110mg/kg of body weight for one week experienced serious damage to their liver (HSDB)
• A dose of 2,500 mg/kg applied to the skin caused severe depression, cold extremities, appetite loss; 4 of 10 died. (NOAA)
• Exposure of the chemical to rabbits' skin at 1,250 mg/kg caused a severe degree of skin injury. The skin was burned in 24 hours with formation of hard eschar at 1-2 weeks; 1 of 10 rabbits died. (NOAA)
• Ingestion caused tremors, convulsions, severe depression and hemaluria in male rats. Ingestion of 312.5 mg/kg: 1 of 5 male rats die on day 2; 625 mg/kg: 2 of 5 died within 3-5 minutes; 1,250 mg/kg: 3 of 5 died within 3-5 minutes; 2,500 mg/kg: 100% mortality within 3-5 minutes. Hemorrhage of the stomach occurred in all rats that died. (NOAA)

• Moderate acute toxicity to fish (PANNA)    


• Should be readily biodegradable below toxic limits (HSDB)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• In a test study fish died after a 7-11 hour exposure at 10mg/L (IUCLID)
• LC50 for bluegill is 3800ug/L after a 96 hour exposure (IUCLID)

OTHER

2-Furanmethanol, tetrahydro-

CAS#- 97-99-4

• Severe eye irritant (HSDB)
• People with existing skin disorders may be more susceptible to the effects (HSDB)
• Chronic exposure may cause liver and kidney damage (MSDS)


• Irritating to skin and mucous membranes (HSDB)
• Effects of exposure through inhalation include sore throat, cough, headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness (NIOSH)
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 2
○ Materials that, on intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure, could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury, including those requiring the use of respiratory protective equipment that has an independent air supply. These materials are hazardous to health, but areas may be entered freely if personnel are provided with full-face mask self-contained breathing apparatus that provides complete eye protection. (HSDB)


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                            
• Rabbit eyes exposed to 0.1 mL had irritation over 24 hours and thickness of cornea
• In a study on rats the NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level) for reproductive and developmental toxicity was 50mg/kg of body weight/day (Hirata-Koizumi et al.) 

• Readily Biodegradable (HSDB)
• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediment (HSDB) 
• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish (PANNA)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• LC50 for harlequin fish is 3400mg/L after a 96hr exposure (MSDS)

OTHER

2 - Propanol, 1 -(2 - butoxy - 1 - methylethoxy) -
 
CAS#- 29911-28-2

• Listed it as a suspected neurotoxicant. (EDF)


• Prolonged exposure to skin may cause drying of the skin, leading to dermatitis (MSDS)
• Slightly irritating to eyes

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In tests, fish experienced a 50% mortality rate in concentrations of
841 mg/liter of water for 4 days (IUCLID)
• Aquatic invertebrates did not experience any effects after exposure to a concentration of 1000mg/liter of water for 2 days (IUCLID)

Corexit 9500

Corexit 9527

OTHER

2 - Propenoic acid, 2 - methyl - , 1,1' - (1,2 - ethanediyl) ester, polymer with 2 - propen - 1 - yl 2 - methyl - 2 - propenoate
 
CAS#- 182212-41-5

...

...

OTHER

2- Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-

CAS#- 872-50-4

• Listed as a reproductive toxin. (Haz-map)
• Listed as a suspected blood, kidney, and neuro toxicant (EDF)
• Listed as a probable development toxicant. Damage to the fetus is possible. (MSDS) 
• Prolonged or repeated skin contact can cause blistering, edema, erythema (HSDB)
• Researchers have labeled it as a severe eye irritant (HSDB)
• Years of exposure can lead to depression and other CNS disorders


• Shown to cause contact dermatitis (Haz-map)
• Exposure levels as low as 0.7ppm have caused headaches and eye irritation (HSDB)
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 2 (HSDB)
○ Materials that, on intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure, could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury, including those requiring the use of respiratory protective equipment that has an independent air supply. These materials are hazardous to health, but areas may be entered freely if personnel are provided with full-face mask self-contained breathing apparatus that provides complete eye protection.


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                            
• Rats fed high concentrations daily for 4 weeks experienced lethargy, respiratory difficulties, pneumonia, and death (HSDB) 

• Moderate acute toxicity to zooplankton (PANNA)

• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediment (HSDB)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• LC50 for fish is over 4,000mg/L over a 96 hour exposure (MSDS)

OTHER

9- Octadecenoic acid (9Z)-

CAS#- 112-80-1

• Skin and eye irritant (Haz-map)
• Moderate irritation to skin when applied daily for 3 days (HSDS)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• In animal studies, application of chemical to skin caused crusting, ulceration, and thickening. (HSDB)
• In animal studies, injection of chemical into the skin caused inflammation and necrosis (HSDB)

• Expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediment (HSDB) 


 
• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish (PANNA)

OTHER

9- Octadecenoic acid (9Z) -, monoester with 1,2 - propanediol
 
CAS#- 1330-80-9

• Not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful

• Suspected to be an environmental toxin

OTHER

Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated
 
CAS#- 84133-50-6

...

...

DISPERSIT SPC 1000

OTHER

Alcohols, C12-16, ethoxylated
 
CAS#- 68551-12-2

• Inhalation may be harmful (NOAA)
• Irritating to eyes and respiratory tract (NOAA)
• Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes (NOAA)

• Very toxic to aquatic organisms (NOAA)

OTHER

Alcohols, C9-11, ethoxylated
 
CAS#- 68439-46-3

• Severely irritating to eyes. Causes burning sensation, redness, swelling, and/or blurred vision (MSDS)

• May cause moderate irritation to the skin (MSDS)

• Moderate acute toxicity to fish (PANNA)



ANIMAL STUDIES
• LC50 for fathead minnow is 8.5mg/L after 96 hour exposure (MSDS)
• LC50 for water flea is 5.3mg/L after 48 hour exposure (MSDS)

OTHER

Alkanes, C14-30
 
CAS#- 74664-93-0

...

...

MARE CLEAN 200

OTHER

Amides, coco, N,N-bis(hydroxyethyl)
 
CAS#- 68603-42-9

• Listed as a likely carcinogen (HSDB)
• Listed as a suspected immunotoxicant (EDF)


• Listed as a skin sensitizer (Haz-map)
• Skin irritant (HSDB)

• In a study on water fleas the EC50 was reached at 3.3mg/L. Effects
observed were immobilization (HSDB)
• In a study on zebrafish the LC50 was reached at 3.6mg/L after 96 hours of exposure (HSDB)

DISPERSIT SPC 1000

OTHER

Amides, tall oil, fatty N,N-bis(hydroxyethyl)
 
CAS#- 68155-20-4

• In a study on mice, sensory and pulmonary irritation were observed at low
concentrations (EPA)

...

OTHER

Amines, tallow alkyl, ethoxylated
 
CAS#- 61791-26-2

...

• Moderate acute toxicity to fish (PANNA)

DISPERSIT SPC 1000

OTHER

Benzenemethanaminium, N - ethyl - N - 4- 4- ethyl(3-sulfophenyl)methylaminophenyl(2 - sulfophenyl)methylene - 2,5 -cyclohexadien - 1 - ylidene - 3 - sulfo -, inner salt, sodium salt (1:2)
 
CAS#- 3844-45-9

• Danger of cumulative effects. Repeated exposure may cause increased incidences of negative effects. (MSDS 1)



• "To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated." (MSDS 2)
• Irritant to skin, eyes, digestive tract, and respiratory tract (MSDS 1) 

• In an MSDS for a product that contained this chemical, it states that
all ingredients were not toxic to aquatic life. (MSDS 3)
• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish (PANNA)

OTHER

Benzenemethanol

CAS#- 100-51-6

• Listed as a suspected liver toxicant, neurotoxicant, and immunotoxicant (EDF)


• Studies have shown a low incidence of allergic reactions to exposure to skin, even
among people who have a prior history of skin issues and sensitivities (HSDB)
• Vapor is irritating to eyes, nose, and throat(HSDB)
• Liquid is irritating to skin and eyes (HSDB)


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                            
• Rats exposed to air saturated with benzyl alcohol (1000-2000ppm) for 2-4 hours experienced death rates of 50-75% 14 days after initial exposure. (HSDB)
• Pregnant rats fed 750mg/day experienced a 38% death rate before giving birth. Birth weight and weight gain after birth were significantly less than control group. (HSDB)

• Listed as toxic to aquatic organisms (NIOSH) 


• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediment (HSDB)
• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish (PANNA)

OTHER

Benzenesulfonic acid, (1 - methylethyl) -, sodium salt (1:1)
 
CAS#- 28348-53-0

...

...

OTHER

Benzenesulfonic acid, C10-16-alkyl derivs.
 
CAS#- 68584-22-5

ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                            
• In a test on rats, the LD50 was 1470mg/kg of body weight (EPA)
• In a test on rabbits exposed through the skin experienced erythema, mild edema at 212 mg/kg body weight (EPA)
• In a test on guinea pigs, no skin sensitization was observed (EPA)

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In a test on carp, the LC50 was 5.6mg/L (EPA)
• In a test on water fleas, the EC50 was reached at 5.2 mg/L. Effects observed were immobilization (EPA)
○ A similar study found the same effects for an EC50 at 2.9mg/L
• In a test on the effects on aquatic plants the EC50 was reached at 36mg/L. Effects observed were reduced growth rate. (EPA)

OTHER

Benzenesulfonic acid, dimethyl-, sodium salt (1:1)

CAS#- 1300-72-7

• Low toxicity (HSDB)
• Symptoms of exposure to this compound may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and skin, blisters, sensitization, coughing and chest discomfort. Redness, soreness, papular dermatitis, thickening of the skin, weeping, cracking and scaling may also occur. Other symptoms may include diarrhea, intestinal distention and, occasionally, vomiting. (NOAA)

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In tests on chronic exposure, crustaceans experienced
loss of swimming ability and death (IUCLID)

OTHER

Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-
 
CAS#-27176-87-0

• Exposure to chemical at levels toxic to adult females may damage the fetus (NJ Fsheet)                                                                                                                        
• Will cause pain and second degree burns after a few minutes of contact (HSDB)


• Repeated skin contact may cause dryness, itching, and rash (NJ Fsheet)                                
• Effects from exposure through ingestion include irritation of mouth, esophagus, and stomach as well as diarrhea, intestinal distention, and occasional vomiting (NOAA)
• Effects from exposure through inhalation include burning sensation, cough, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and sore throat (NIOSH)
• Concentrations of 0.5-1.0% in water can cause significant irritation (NOAA)                             
• Irritant to eyes and skin. (HSDB) 

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In a study on snails, significant changes to their growth and reproduction were experienced (HSDB)

• Toxic to aquatic organisms (NIOSH)


• Biodegradation decreases with lower water temperatures (HSDB)

OTHER

Benzenesulfonic acid, dodecyl-, compd. with 2-propanamine (1:1)
 
CAS#-26264-05-1

• Ingestion causes mild irritation of mouth and stomach (NOAA)
• Contact with eyes causes irritation. (NOAA)
• Prolonged contact can cause mild irritation of skin (NOAA)
• In a study on rats, the LD50 was 1836mg/kg of body weight (EPA)

• In a study on minnows, LC50 was 22mg/L (EPA)
• In a study on water fleas EC50 was 2.5mg/L (EPA)

OTHER

beta-Cyclodextrin
 
CAS#- 7585-39-9

• May cause allergic skin reaction (MSDS2)
• "The toxicological properties of this substance have not been fully investigated." (MSDS1)
• Potential eye, skin, digestive tract, and respiratory tract irritant (MSDS1)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• Adverse reproductive effects have occurred in experimental animals (MSDS1)

• LD50 for rats fed chemical is 18,800 mg/kg of body weight (MSDS1)

• May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment (MSDS2)

OTHER

Butanedioic acid, sulfo-, 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt

CAS#- 577-11-7

• Listed as a suspected neurotoxicant (EDF)
• Toxic to blood (MSDS)                                                                                                
• Classified as moderately toxic. (HSDB) 


• Liquid is strong irritant to eye and may irritate skin by removing natural oils. (NOAA)
• Ingestion causes diarrhea and intestinal bloating. (NOAA)


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                           
• Oral exposure caused these effects in rats: low body weight (of adults), decreases
in maternal weight gain, low birth weight of pups, and malformed fetuses.
• Severely damaging to rabbit eyes at 10% concentration. (HSDB)
• Mice and rats repeatedly exposed to butanedioic acid showed gastrointestinal problems, reduced weight gain, and death at certain doses. Dogs did not experience any adverse effects from repeated exposure. (toxipedia)
•Exposure to the skin has caused these effects in rabbits: erythema, edema, premature skin death, irritation, and coarse skin. (toxipedia)
• High doses from oral exposure have caused these effects in mice and rats: depression, diarrhea, lethargy, irritation and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal tract, and death. (toxipedia)

• Possibility of absorbing to sediment (HSDB)
• Slight acute toxicity to fish (PANNA)

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In tests, fish experienced a 50% or higher mortality rate when concentrations of butanedioic acid, 2-sulfo-, 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt were between 28-37mg/liter of water after 4 complete days of exposure. (EPA)
• In tests, 50% or more aquatic invertebrates experienced negative effects from a 2-day exposure to a concentration of 36.2mg/liter of water. (EPA)
• Slightly toxic to bluegill sunfish (EPA)
• In tests, rainbow trout died at levels of 40-80mg/L (EPA)
• In tests, rainbow trout died within 1 hour of exposure to 50-100 ppm (EPA)

Corexit 9500 

Corexit 9527

OTHER

Cyclohexene, 1 - methyl - 4 - (1 - methylethenyl) -, (4R) -
 
CAS#- 5989-27-5

• Suspected liver toxicant, kidney toxicant, neurotoxicant, respiratory toxicant, and immunotoxicant (EDF) 

•Carcinogenic in rats (HSDB) 
• This type of compound irritates all tissues intensely and may cause circulatory collapse. (NOAA)


 • Can cause contact dermatitis, skin sensitization (HSDB)
• Skin irritant and mild eye irritant (HSDB)                                                                            
• Ingestion of this type of compound may cause abdominal burning, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dysuria, hematuria, unconsciousness, shallow respiration, and convulsions. (NOAA)
• Inhalation of this type of compound may cause dizziness, rapid and shallow breathing, tachycardia, bronchial irritation, unconsciousness and convulsions. Anuria, pulmonary edema and bronchia pneumonia may complicate recovery after either type of exposure. (NOAA)


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                            
• In an experiment on rats, LD50 (lethal dose that killed 50% of rats) was 4400 mg/kg of body weight for males and 5200 mg/kg of body weight. (EPA)

• High potential of bioaccumulating (HSDB)
• Expected to absorb to suspended solids and sediment(HSDB)
• Very toxic to aquatic organisms (NIOSH)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• In study on minnows, LC50 (concentration that killed 50% of fish) was 720 ug/L (EPA)
• In study on water fleas LC50 was 577 ug/L (EPA)

OTHER

D - Glucopyranose, oligomeric, C10 - 16 - alkyl glycosides
 
CAS#- 110615-47-9

...

...

OTHER

Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light
 
CAS#- 64742-47-8

• Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (MSDS)                            
• Prolonged inhalation of high cooncentrations may damage respiratory system (MSDS)


• Frequent and prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis (MSDS)
• Exposure by inhalation can cause dizziness, headache, nausea, drowsiness, and unconsciousness (NIOSH)
• Exposure to the skin can cause dryness. (NIOSH)
• Exposure to the eyes can cause redness (NIOSH)


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                                                       
• After oral ingestion, rats: lost weight and hair (p. 3), exhibited high platelet counts (p. 4), changes in serum chemistry (p. 4); increased kidney, liver, adrenal and testes size and chemistry (pp. 4-5 (EPA HS)

• Listed as harmful to aquatic organisms (NIOSH)
• Moderate acute toxicity to fish (PANNA)

Corexit 9500

Corexit 9527

OTHER

Ethanol, 2 - (2 - butoxyethoxy) -
 
CAS#- 112-34-5


• Listed as a suspected neurotoxin, kidney toxin, cardiovascular/blood toxin, and reproductive toxin (Haz-map)
• Exposure associated with anemia (Haz-map)


• "To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated." (MSDS2)
• Moderately irritating to eyes, not appreciably irritating to skin (HSDB)
• Can be toxic when inhaled or absorbed through the skin in repeated small doses. (HSDB)
• Not corrosive to skin, eyes, or respiratory tract (HSDB) 
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 1 (HSDB)
○ Materials that, on exposure, would cause irritation, but only minor residual injury, including those requiring the use of an approved air-purifying respirator. These materials are only slightly hazardous to health and only breathing protection is needed.

• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediments (HSDB)
• LC50 for bluegill sunfish was 2400mg/L (HSDB)
• LC50 for water fleas was 2850mg/L (MSDS)
• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish and zooplankton (PANNA)
• Readily biodegradable (DOW)

OTHER

Ethanol, 2,2',2''- nitrilotris -

CAS#- 102-71-6

• Exposure has been associated with asthma (haz-map)
• Burns can result from prolonged or repeated exposure to skin (HSDB)

• Identified as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis, skin sensitizer (Haz-map)
• Considered to have low acute and chronic toxicity (HSDB)                                                    
• Irritant to eyes and skin (HSDB)                                                                                       
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 2
○ Materials that, on intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure, could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury, including those requiring the use of respiratory protective equipment that has an independent air supply. These materials are hazardous to health, but areas may be entered freely if personnel are provided with full-face mask self-contained breathing apparatus that provides complete eye protection. (HSDB) 


ANIMAL STUDIES                                                                                                            
• Sublethal exposure to animals has shown non-permanent live injury (HSDB)
• Application of 5-10% solution to rats skin did not have negative effects (HSDB)

• Low seawater biodegradability may create long-term chronic effects to aquatic organisms (Libralato et al.)


• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids orsediment (HSDB)
• Listed as not acutely toxic to crustaceans, fish, and zooplankton (PANNA)

OTHER

Ethanol, 2,2'- iminobis -

CAS#-111-42-2

• Exposure associated with asthma (Haz-map)
• Listed as a kidney toxin in occuational settings (Haz-map)
• May cause skin burns at high concentrations (Haz-map)

• May cause skin allergy. If allergy develops, very low future exposure can cause itching and a skin rash (NJ Fsheet)
• Slight irritation of skin and mucous membranes (HSDB)
○ Mild irritation only in concentrations above 5%
○ The higher the concentration the worse the injury
• Repeated exposure may impair vision and denature skin 
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 1 (HSDB)
○ Materials that, on exposure, would cause irritation, but only minor residual injury, including those requiring the use of an approved air-purifying respirator. These materials are only slightly hazardous to health and only breathing protection is needed.

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In animal studies, oral exposure has shown testicular degeneration (EPA)
• Chronic oral exposure in animal studies has shown impacts on liver, kidney, blood, central nervous system (EPA)  


• In studies exposing rats and mice to the chemical through their skin, the rats displayed no carcinogenic effects, while the mice did (EPA)

• Low biodegradability in seawater might promote potential long-term toxicity effects towards aquatic organisms. (Libralato et al.)


• Half-life ranges from a couple days to a few weeks
• Listed as not acutely toxic to crustaceans, fish, and zooplankton (PANNA)

OTHER

Ethanol, 2- amino -

CAS#- 141-43-5

• Exposure is associated with asthma (haz-map)
• Should be treated as a potential reproductive toxin. More research needs to be done. (NJ Fsheet)
• Repeated exposure may damage the liver and kidneys. (NJ Fsheet)
• Exposure to high concentrations may affect CNS. (NJ Fsheet)
• Repeated exposure may cause bronchitis (NJ Fsheet)
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 3 (HSDB)
○ 3= Materials that, on short exposure, could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including those requiring protection from all bodily contact. Fire fighters may enter the area only if they are protected from all contact with the material. Full protective clothing, including self-contained breathing apparatus, coat, pants, gloves, boots, and bands around legs, arms, and waist, should be provided. No skin surface should be exposed.


• Skin exposure can cause contact dermatitits (allergy) (Haz-map)
• Irritant to skin, eyes, CNS, and respiratory tract (Haz-map)
• Corrosive, can cause severe eye and skin burns (NJ)
• Concentration of 5.9% and higher are an irritant to skin (HSDB)
• Animals exposed to vapor and mist experienced a variety of types of lesions (HSDB)

• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediment (HSDB)

OTHER

Ethanol, 2-butoxy-

CAS#- 111-76-2

• Listed as a possible carcinogen. Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans.   (HSDB)
• While 2-Butoxyethanol is not registered as a carcinogen, the New Jersey Department of Health Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet states it "should be handled as a CARCINOGEN--WITH EXTREME CAUTION." The same fact sheet reports that it has been shown to cause liver cancer in animals. (NJ Fsheet)
• Prolonged or repeated exposures can cause damage to the liver and kidneys (NJ Fsheet)
• Exposure may damage developing fetus (NJ Fsheet)
• People exposed to high levels of 2-butoxyethanol for several hours reported irritation of the nose and eyes, headache, a metallic taste in their mouths, and vomiting (ASTDR)



• Irritant to eyes, nose, and throat (HSDB)
• The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set an exposure limit of 50 parts of 2-butoxyethanol per million parts of air (50 ppm) for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. (ASTDR)
• If large amounts are consumed orally it can cause breathing problems, low blood pressure, blood in urine, lowered levels of hemoglobin, and high levels of acid in the body. Coma, following consumption of large amounts, has been recorded in some cases (ASTDR)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• Limited evidence that it may damage male reproductive system and affect female fertility in animals (NJ Fsheet)
• Low red blood cell counts in the spleen, kidney, and liver have been recorded in a number of studies on animals such as dogs, monkeys, and mice (ASTDR)

• Potential to biodegrade rapidly in water (HSDB)
• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or
sediment (HSDB)
• Listed as not acutely toxic to crustaceans, fish, and zooplankton (PANNA)

Corexit 9527

OTHER

Ethoxylated dodecanol
 
CAS#- 9002-92-0

• Listed as moderately toxic (HSDB)


• Contact with skin may cause irritation (HSDB)
• Harmful to dermal layer but not epidermal
• Eye and respiratory irritant. Prolonged eye contact may cause severe irritation (NOAA)
• High doses cause narcosis and convulsions (NOAA)

...

OTHER

Glycine, N,N'- 1,2- ethanediylbisN-(carboxymethyl)-, sodium salt (1:4)

CAS#- 64-02-8

• When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides and sodium oxides (HSDB)
• In a study on the toxicity of the chemical to cells, there was found to be a correlation to dose of the chemical and decreased cell viability. (Ballal et al.)
• Acute exposure not irritating to skin of rabbits, but irritating to their eyes (HSDB)
• Effects of exposure through inhalation are cough and sore throat (NIOSH)
• Effects of exposure through ingestion are burning sensation in the chest and throat, abdominal pain, and diarrhea (NIOSH)

ANIMAL STUDIES
• In a study, the LD50 for rats was reached at 10g/kg of body weight

• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish and zooplankton (PANNA)

OTHER

Imidazolium compounds, 1 - 2 - (2-carboxyethoxy)ethyl - 1(or 3) - (2-carboxyethyl) - 4,5 - dihydro - 2 - norcoco
alkyl, hydroxides, disodium salts
 
CAS#- 68604-71-7

...

...

OTHER

Naphthalenesulfonic acid, methyl-, sodium salt (1:1)
 
CAS#-26264-58-4

...

...

OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - (4 - nonylphenyl) - .omega. - hydroxy -, branched
 
CAS#- 127087-87-0

• Exposure to the eye can cause severe eye irritation and conjunctivitis with possible chemical burns (MSDS)
• Hazardous in case of inhalation and ingestion (MSDS)
• Animal studies indicate that continuous exposure to high concentrations may be toxic to the kidneys (MSDS)
• May affect genetic material and cause adverse reproductive effects and birth defects based on animal studies (MSDS)
 
• Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause irritation and dermatitis (MSDS)

• LC50 for water fleas is 21.4mg/L after a 48 hour exposure
• LC50 for flathead minnows is ~6.4 mg/l after a 96 hour exposure

OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha. - (9Z) - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl - .omega. - hydroxy -
 
CAS#-9004-98-2

• May contain traces of ethylene oxide, a suspected carcinogen. No further information available. (MSDS)


• Hazardous in case of eye contact or inhalation (MSDS)
• Slight skin irritant (MSDS)



ANIMAL STUDIES
• LD50 for rats is 2770mg/kg of body weight (MSDS) 

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OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - (nonylphenyl) - .omega. - hydroxy -
 
CAS#- 9016-45-9

• Suspected endocrine toxicant (EDF)


ANIMAL STUDIES
• Eye irritant in rabbits (p. 4) (EPA HS)
• Mild dermal irritation in rabbit; no dermal corrosivity (EPA HS)

• Expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediment (HSDB)
• Listed as moderately toxic to fish and zooplankton (PANNA)
• Listed as slightly toxic to molluscs and crustaceans (PANNA)

OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - (9Z) - 1 - oxo - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl - .omega. - (9Z) - 1 - oxo - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl oxy -
 
CAS#- 9005-07-6

• Eye, skin, and digestive tract irritant (MSDS2)
• Prolonged or repeated skin exposure may cause rash, acne, and dermatitis (MSDS1)

ANIMAL STUDIES
• LC50 for fish is 1-10mg/L (MSDS3)

MARE CLEAN 200

OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha.- (9Z)- 1 - oxo - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl - .omega.- hydroxy-
 
CAS#- 9004-96-0

...

...

DISPERSIT SPC 1000 

MARE CLEAN 200

OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - hydro - .omega. - (9Z) - 1 - oxo - 9 - octadecen - 1 - yl]oxy] -, ether with D-glucitol (6:1)

CAS#- 57171-56-9

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...

OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - hydro - .omega. - hydroxy - , ether with 1,2,3 -propanetriol
(9Z) - 9 - octadecenoate
 
CAS#- 57107-97-8

...

...

MARE CLEAN 200

OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - hydro - .omega. - hydroxy - , mono - C8 - 10 - alkyl ethers, phosphates
 
CAS#- 68130-47-2

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OTHER

Poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl), .alpha. - undecyl - .omega.- hydroxy -
 
CAS#- 34398-01-1

...

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OTHER

Potassium hydroxide (K(OH))

CAS#- 1310-58-3

• Ingestion can cause severe pain, vomiting, diarrhea, shock, collapse (NIOSH)
• Severe irritant to eyes and and skin with potential for eye damage (NJ Fsheet)
• Extremely corrosive, especially to the eye (NIOSH)
• Inhalation can cause irritation of lungs, shortness of breath, coughing. Exposure to high concentration can cause build up of fluid in lungs (NJ Fsheet)
• Repeated exposure may cause bronchitis (NJ Fsheet)
• When applied to skin of mice for almost a year, tumors developed that resembled tumors from coal tar (HSDB)
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 3 (HSDB)
○ Materials that, on short exposure, could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including those requiring protection from all bodily contact. Fire fighters may enter the area only if they are protected from all contact with the material. Full protective clothing, including self-contained breathing apparatus, coat, pants, gloves, boots and bands around legs, arms, and waist, should be provided. No skin surface should be exposed.


• Chronic skin exposure can result in contact dermatitis (skin allergy) (NJ Fsheet) 
• Dust or mist is an irritant to eye, nose, and throat (HSDB) 

• This substance may be hazardous to the aquatic environment (NIOSH)


• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish (PANNA)

OTHER

Propanol, 1(or 2) - (2-methoxymethylethoxy) -
 
CAS#- 34590-94-8

• Listed as a suspected reproductive toxin, kidney toxin, and potential CNS toxin (Haz-map)
• Repeated exposure to very high levels may affect the liver (NJ Fsheet) 


• Irritant to eyes, skin, nose, and throat (HSDB)
• Exposure can cause headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, and passing out (NJ Fsheet)
• National Fire Protection Association Rating- 0 (HSDB)
○ Materials that, on exposure under fire conditions, offer no hazard beyond that
of ordinary combustible material.

• Not expected to absorb to suspended solids or sediment (HSDB)

DISPERSIT SPC 1000

Silicic acid, potassium salt
 
CAS#- 1312-76-1

ANIMAL STUDIES
• Lethal doses in animal studies are very high (750-1000mg/kg body weight) (IUCLID)
• One animal study found that any symptoms from exposure were reversible (IUCLID)

• High concentrations can raise alkalinity of water and have negative impacts on fish and other aquatic life (IUCLID)

• Silica is used by marine organisms who extract it from water and use it in their shells and skeleton (IUCLID)

OTHER

Sodium hydroxide (Na(OH))

CAS#- 1310-73-2

• Listed as a suspected respiratory toxicant (EDF)
• Several reports have found cancer in the esophagus years after exposure to concentrations of chemical that cause tissue damage. Chemical may not be a carcinogen but the effects of the damage it causes may cause cancer. (ASTDR)
• Very corrosive (ASTDR)
• Can cause skin and eye burns. Skin burns are of 2nd and 3rd degree. Permanent eye damage and even blindness are possible. (NJ Fsheet)
• Inhaling high concentrations can cause build of fluid in lungs, bronchitis, and lead to permanent lung damage (NJ Fsheet)
• Exposure associated with toxic pneumotitis (Haz-map)


• Irritant to mouth, nose, eyes, throat, and skin (HSDB) 
• Effects from skin exposure may not appear until several hours after (ASTDR) 

• In fish toxicity tests, burns occurred on external gills, lots of mucous formed, and fish dies from respiratory organ destruction (IUCLID) 
• Chronic exposure of guppies to chemical caused decreased survival rate, weight gain, and fertility (HSDB)


• When in contact with water the chemical generates a lot of heat
• EPA concluded that it is only slightly toxic to aquatic environment. Toxicity is due to chemical changing pH of water
• Listed as not acutely toxic to fish (PANNA)

OTHER

Sorbitan, mono-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate
 
CAS#- 1338-43-8

• Occupational exposure has been recorded to cause contact eczema in one case (HSDB)
• Rats fed varying amounts of this compound over a span of 16 weeks experienced
liver enlargement and increased kidney weight. (EPA)
• The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) occurred when rats were eating this compound at a rate of 2.5% of their body weight. (EPA)
• In tests, rats fed this compound did not experience mortality. Observed effects included depression, decreased respiration, diarrhea for first 72 hours.(EPA)
• Reported to be practically nontoxic (HSDB)

• Aquatic vertebrates, in this particular study, rainbow trout, experienced a 0% mortality rate after a 4 day exposure to a concentration of 1000mg/liter of water. (EPA)
• Recorded biodegradation of 62% in 28 days. (HSDB)

Corexit 9500


Corexit 9527

OTHER

Sorbitan, mono - (9Z) - 9 - octadecenoate, poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl) derivs.
 
CAS#- 9005-65-6

• Exposure may cause chemical pneumonitis (inflammation of lungs and difficulty breathing) and intestinal obstruction (NOAA)


• Possible eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant (HSDB)
• Listed as practically non-toxic (HSDB)
• Occasional reports of hypersensitivity (HSDB)

ANIMAL STUDIES
• Adverse reproductive effects have occurred in experimental animals (MSDS)
• Effects on development of embryo and fetus have occurred in experimental animals (MSDS) 

...

Corexit 9500

Corexit 9527

OTHER

Sorbitan, tri - (9Z) - 9 - octadecenoate
 
CAS#-26266-58-0

• In studies done on mice, no mortalities or clinical signs were observed (EPA)
• Skin and eye irritant (MSDS)
• Hazardous in case of ingestion or inhalation (MSDS)

• In a study on water fleas no adverse effects were experienced at levels up to 1000 mg/L (EPA)

OTHER

Sorbitan, tri -(9Z) - 9 - octadecenoate, poly(oxy - 1,2 - ethanediyl) derivs.
 
CAS#- 9005-70-3

• Slightly hazardous in case of ingestion or inhalation (MSDS)

...

MARE CLEAN 200

Corexit 9500

Corexit 9527

OTHER

Sulfonic acids, petroleum, sodium salts
 
CAS#- 68608-26-4

• Irritant to eyes and skin. Causes redness, pain. (NIOSH)
• Effects of exposure through ingestion include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting (NIOSH)
• Effects of exposure through inhalation include cough, nausea, and sore throat (NIOSH)
• In a test on rats fed 5 g/kg of body weight, no adverse impacts or effects were observed. (EPA)

• In a study on algae, no impacts were seen up to 100mg/L, which is the highest concentration tested (EPA)

OTHER

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