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Milestones of Toxicology

Milestones of Toxicology - an interactive poster

The Milestones of Toxicology poster was created by Steven G. Gilbert and Toni Hayes in 2006. The poster is interactive: click on a square to get more information. To open or download the clickable Milestone poster in English, click HERE. To learn more about toxicology history on Toxipedia go HERE.


Translations of Milestones of Toxicology


English Abstract

Historical Milestones and Discoveries Which Shaped the Toxicology Sciences

Steven G. Gilbert1 and Antoinette (Toni) Hayes2

1Institute of Neurotoxicology and Neurological Disorders and 2Northeastern University

Knowledge of the toxic and healing properties of plants, animals, and minerals has shaped civilization for millennia. The foundations of modern toxicology are built upon the significant milestones and discoveries of serendipity and crude experimentation. Throughout the ages, toxicological science has provided information that has shaped and guided society. This poster presentation examines the development of the discipline of toxicology and its influence on civilization by highlighting significant milestones and discoveries related to toxicology. The examples shed light on the beginnings of toxicology, as well as examine lessons learned and re-learned. This project is also an effort to examine how toxicology and the toxicologist have interacted with other scientific and cultural disciplines, including religion, politics, and the government. Toxicology has evolved to a true scientific discipline with its own dedicated scientists, educational institutes, sub-disciplines, professional societies, and journals. It now stands as its own entity while traversing such fields as chemistry, physiology, and pharmacology. We invite you to join us on a path of discovery and to offer your suggestions as to what are the most significant milestones and discoveries in toxicology. An interactive version of the poster is available at


Articles & Reviews

Article and reviews on the milestones poster coming Soon…



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