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By Dale A. Stirling

As this bibliography is a continually evolving document, we encourage recommendations and contributions from our readers. Moreover, because the scope of the bibliography is international, we want to add citations reflecting the global practice of toxicology regardless of the language of publication. Therefore, please forward your recommendations to the author at

Recommendations should include standard bibliographic elements [Osterhoudt K.C. 2006. The lexiconography of toxicology. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2(1):1-2.] and, if possible, an electronic copy of the document being recommended. Thank you in advance for your important contribution!


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In 2006, the International Journal of Toxicology (IJT) published the article “History of Toxicology and Allied Sciences: A Bibliographic Review and Guide to Suggested Readings” (volume 25:261-268). Since then, a significant body of literature has been published that reveals the changing face of toxicology and allied sciences. This includes new disciplines and sub-specialties, new challenges and controversies, and even the integration of social media. Therefore, this new web-based bibliography incorporates citations from the 2006 article as well as pertinent works published since 2006 gathered from a wide variety of research resources. However, this bibliography will not be a static document; it will grow as pertinent documents are added in the coming years. Recommendations and contributions will be sought from the Toxipedia audience.

a) 2006 Abstract from International Journal of Toxicology

With roots extending to antiquity, toxicology is a profession that recognizes that the past is often prologue to the present. In that spirit, this article provides a comprehensive bibliographic overview of writings on the history of toxicology and allied sciences. These writings pertain to the evolution of toxicology, its various methods, concepts, and theories; as well as pioneers of the profession and the growth of professional toxicological organizations. It is not an exhaustive survey, but provides a thorough accounting of literature pertaining to the history of toxicology.

b) 2016 Introduction

In the past decade, there have been numerous developments in the field of toxicology and allied sciences. This ranges from nanotechnology to emerging sub-specialties such as lipidomics and ethotoxicology. In addition, the digital divide is shrinking and the availability of information is reaching ever further, including the rapidly expanding world of open-source journals. There are also continuing controversies such as certification, retracted articles, and nanotechnology. Perhaps the most interesting development is the integration of social media and toxicology. Therefore, the purpose of this bibliography is to enlighten the reader on the history of toxicology and allied sciences, their key concepts, and emerging issues and concerns as revealed in the written record. In some cases, a document’s publication date alone makes it “historical,” and in some cases a publication may be considered a “pivotal” or “legacy” document. In other cases, regardless of the publication date, a document or a succession of documents on a particular subject reveals its history. Moreover, the journal articles, theses, books and other documents published today become tomorrow’s historical perspective. As before this work includes literature on industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, epidemiology, risk assessment, and other allied sciences and disciplines because of their mutually complementary and beneficial nature with toxicology.

The bibliography also broadens the scope of the IJT article and includes literature on toxicology and allied sciences as practiced in specific countries or regions of the world; acknowledges additional pioneers of toxicology as well as new literature on previously acknowledged pioneers; examines the identity of the profession in general; and reaches even further back in time for articles addressing the future of toxicology. Perhaps most importantly, it includes citations for documents not published in English—reinforcing that toxicology and allied sciences are practiced on a global scale.

c) Organization

The bibliography is organized into four broad subject categories and secondary headings are used to aid in organizing the citations appearing in the bibliography.

  1. Informatics, Bibliometrics and Scientometrics
    1. Bibliographies and Other Reference Works
    2. Databases and Ready References
  2. The Toxicology Profession
    1. Education, Employment, and Social Aspects
    2. Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Issues
    3. Historical and Contemporary Reflections
    4. Journals and Publications
    5. Professional Organizations
    6. Pioneers in Toxicology and Allied Sciences
  3. Global Practice of Toxicology
  4. Toxicology Concepts, Disciplines, and Theories

d) Citation Style

The citation style is a simplified APA format—concise but accurate and allowing the reader to either easily obtain the cited document or confirm its validity. Although the U.S. National Library of Medicine has standardized journal abbreviations that are accepted in the medical sciences, complete journal titles are used owing to the international audience and because many of the journals cited in this bibliography are not medical in nature, but related to other disciplines such as economics, the humanities, engineering, and so on. There are a few exceptions: those journals that have been commonly abbreviated for decades on a near universal basis; a few examples are:

  • AIHA Journal (American Industrial Hygiene Association)
  • AJPH (American Journal of Public Health)
  • JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association)
  • JAPCA (Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association)
  • JAWA (Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association)
  • NEJM (New England Journal of Medicine)

e) Selection Criteria

Documents are cited in the bibliography for the following reasons:

  • The document is largely historical in context in the treatment of the topic, provides additional historical perspective, or is a comprehensive literature review, bibliography, or other similar document that in concert with other documents is part of a continuing lineage of information that can be utilized to understand the development of a toxicological concept, idea, theory, practice, etc.
  • The entire document was read (articles) or thoroughly scanned (books, theses and dissertations, other book-length documents) for appropriate content and context
  • In cases where the author of this bibliography is well acquainted with a document, a series of related documents, or document authors from past toxicological or related consulting work
  • In regards to databases and ready references, citations are included wherein the author has consistently utilized them to obtain toxicological information over the past two decades, even if the source is not considered a traditional source of toxicological information (i.e., AGRICOLA and AGRIS wherein information of value was obtained for ecotoxicological risk assessments)

f) Research Resources Utilized

A key resource utilized in compiling bibliographic citations is the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services’ National Library of Medicine (NLM) database known as PUBMED. The most direct search method was keyword based. However, due to limitations imposed by the NLM in deciding which journals to abstract, numerous other databases, indices, and search engines were utilized in compiling this comprehensive bibliography. These additional resources were also utilized because numerous non-biomedical literature relates to toxicology and allied sciences. Many of the following resources are profiled in the “Databases & Ready References” section.

View a list of the resources used here.



Informatics, Bibliometrics, and Scientometrics

Documents in this section of the bibliography interpret the history of toxicology from an analytical, interpretive, and metrical standpoint. Although toxicological research resources have been collated and examined continually for decades, the relatively new science of journal citation and journal article impact analysis places the literature under a microscope as never before. This section includes key bibliographic studies of toxicological literature as well as databases and ready references that are used for literature searching or to acquire scientific data used in preparing chemical toxicity profiles and studying the human health or environmental impact of specific chemicals, chemical compounds, or substances of concern. Ready references are resources that don’t require in-depth research but are rather aggregates of other sources of information. Examples of those include CD-ROMs, bulletins, monographs, and reports that provide systematic reviews of toxicological interest (e.g., ATSDR Toxicological Profiles, NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletins, and IARC Monographs on Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans).

Documents selected for inclusion in this section meet the following criteria:

  1. The subject of the document is a toxicological resource, or
  2. The document may relate to several or more resources, but includes a toxicological resource of interest, or
  3. The document is a toxicological journal that includes information about other resources germane to toxicology, or
  4. The document does not specifically relate to toxicology, but includes information about atoxicological resource or resources germane to toxicology

a) Bibliographies and Other Reference Works 

b) Databases and Ready References

The Toxicology Profession

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of toxicology and allied sciences are the people working in the trenches of the profession. How these professionals are educated, trained, and actually conduct their business is the focus of this section of the bibliography. As one reads these documents a better understanding of the history of the profession will be realized. Moreover, changes in the profession over time can be gauged with a critical eye.

a) Education, Employment, and Social Aspects

b) Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Issues

c) Historical and Contemporary Reflections

d) Journals and Publications

e) Professional Organizations

f) Pioneers of Toxicology and Allied Sciences



Global Practice of Toxicology and Allied Sciences

This section of the bibliography reveals that toxicology and allied sciences are vibrant disciplines practiced on a global scale. However, in general, toxicological science is more engrained in developed and western nations than in undeveloped and emerging countries. Therefore, for certain nations (e.g., Angola) where few pertinent documents were found pertaining to the practice of toxicology in that country, at least one citation is included that pertains to some aspect of toxicological concern in that country.

a) Countries and Regions: A-E, F-J, K-O, P-T, U-Z

b) Articles on Developing Countries as a Whole


Toxicology Concepts, Disciplines, and Theories

While the section on the toxicology profession reflects the personal side of toxicology and allied sciences, this section of the bibliography reflects the critical thinking side of toxicology and allied sciences. It is the concepts, disciplines and theories of toxicology that enable its practitioners to practice their craft for the purpose of improving environmental and human health on a global scale.

Click on a topic to view bibliographic resources.

Aerospace and Aviation

Amphibian Toxicology

Analytical Toxicology

Aquatic and Marine Toxicology

Archaeological Toxicology

Behavioral and Neurobehavioral Toxicology

Biochemical Toxicology

Chemical Toxicology

Clinical Toxicology

Comparative Toxicology

Computational Toxicology

Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology


Developmental Toxicology

Discovery Toxicology

Ecological and Ecotoxicological

Emergency Medicine

Environmental Toxicology




Evidence-Based Toxicology

Evolutionary Toxicology

Experimental Toxicology

Fire and Combustion Toxicology

Food and Nutritional Toxicology

Forensic Toxicology

Gastrointestinal Toxicology

Genetic Toxicology


Good Laboratory Practices, QA-QC, TQM, Validation




Industrial Health/Hygiene/Medicine/Toxicology

Inhalation Toxicology

Insect Toxicology

In Vitro Toxicology

Laws, Rules, and Old Saws of Toxicology

Life Cycle Assessment


Mechanistic Toxicology

Medical Toxicology

Metabolomics and Metabonomics

Metal Toxicology

Military Toxicology

Mixture Toxicology

Mutagenesis and Mutagenicity



Occupational and Environmental Health/Hygiene/Medicine/Toxicology


Particle and Fibre Toxicology

Pediatric Toxicology

Perinatal, Prenatal, and Neonatal Toxicology

Pesticide Toxicology

Pharmaceutical Toxicology

Physical Constants

Plastics Toxicology

Predictive Toxicology


Radiation Toxicology

Regulatory Toxicology

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology

Risk Assessment

Statistics and Toxicology

Stem Cell Toxicology

Synthetic Toxicology



Toxicity Testing



Toxicologic Chemistry

Toxicologic Pathology



Veterinary, Wildlife, and Conservation Toxicology


Author Information

Although Dale Stirling began his career as an historian for the Alaska Department of Natural Resources in 1980, with the passage of Superfund and similar laws and initiatives, he was deep into environmental consulting by 1987. With concurrent training in archival, library, and records management he’s forged a unique career as an historian working primarily in the sciences. Between 1987 and 1996 he worked at two prominent Seattle area environmental and geotechnical engineering firms and between 1998 and 2005 he was Senior Information Specialist at Intertox, Inc. in Seattle. Since starting his own sole-source consultancy in 2005, Stirling has worked with attorneys, engineers, epidemiologists, industrial hygienists, toxicologists, and other technical professionals on a host of projects ranging from the Trail Smelter case to investigations of formerly used commercial, industrial, and military sites.

Stirling’s experience is reflected in a substantial publishing record including the books Biomedical Organizations: A Worldwide Guide to Position Documents and A Bibliographic Guide to North American Industry: History, Health & Hazardous Waste. His peer-reviewed journal articles have appeared in Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Government Information Quarterly, International Journal of Toxicology Medical Reference Services Quarterly, The Public Historian, and Toxicological Sciences among others. He also contributes book reviews to a wide range of information, scientific, and technical journals. Lastly, he frequently reviews government grant applications as well as articles submitted to journals in the humanities, information sciences, and hard sciences.


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